Ipilo ka-Desmond Tutu: Nasiyiqala Kafitjhazana

Wabelethelwa Klerksdorp

©Eric Miller
Ngezi 7 zakaSewula ngonyaka ka-1931, kwabelethwa uDesmond Mpilo Tutu, owabelethwa ngutitjhere uZacharia kanye no Aletta (okhabe angunomakhwijhi) endaweni yeKlerksdorp esifundeni sange North West eSewula Africa. Khabe angomunye wabentwana emndenini ogade unganayo kuhle imali.

Lokha uDesmond aneminyaka emine ubudala ubabakhe wamthumele eskolweni endaweni yeVentersdorp lapha umndenakhe khabe ukerega ekeregeni ye-African Methodist Episcopal Church. Ukusuka lapho umndenakhe wafudukela eRoodepoort eRhawudeni lapha umndenakhe wahlala khona ngaphambi kokufudukela eMunsieville ekuyindawo yabantu abanzima eKrugersdorp, ngeRhawudeni.

Lokha nakahlala eMunsieville, uDesmond gade azenzela imali ngokudiliva izambatho ummankhe akhabe azihlwengisela abantu. Khabe athengisa amalamula namantongomani ukuzenzela enye imadlana godu gade asebenza njenge-caddy e-Killarney Golf course. Wajoyina ama-scouts, lapha anikezwa khona unongorwana we-Tenderfoot Second Class kanye nokuba mfundi okhamba phambili ngokupheka.

Eskolweni Esisemabangeni Aphezulu eSophiatown

UDesmond wathoma ukungena iskolo samabanga aphezulu eWestern High School eduze kweSophiatown ngonyaka ka-1945. Lapha waba mfundi okhamba phambili, wathoma nokuthanda bewajoyina isqhema esidlala umdlalo wakamakhakhulwararhe sesikolwesi. Eminyakeni emibili ngemva kwalokho wabanjwa bulwelwe besifuba (TB), kwatlhogeka bona ayokulala esbhedlela iinyanga eziyi-18. Lokha nakasalele lapho esbhedlela wabamkhozi no-Father Trevor Huddleston, okwaba nguye owaba nomthelela wokobana athande ikerege le, lapha khabe akerega ngaphasi kwakhe ekeregeni i-parish eMunsieville iminyaka emibili.

U-Huddleston gade ambhitjhobhi olingisi wekerege i-Anglican Bishop Okhabe amfundisi eSophiatown. UDesmond wakarwa yihlonipho umfundisi akhabe ayitjengisa ummakhe, umuntu ekhabe athathwa njengomuntu ophasi kunoHuddleston. Bekangakhohlwa indlela uHuddleston akhabe aphatha ngayo woke umuntu ngehlonipho, lokho kwamkhuthaza lada epilwenakhe lokha nakaqalene nomtlhago wokulwa nebandlululo.

Ngebanga lokugula khwakhe, uDesmond wasalela eskolweni begodu bamalela kobana ajoyine iklasi labenza abanga lesumi ngonyaka ka-1950. Kwakulibhudango lakhe ukubanguDorhodere, njeke khabe alala ebusuku, afunde ngekhandlela, afundela ibanga lakhe lesumi. Waphasa iinhlahluko zakhe bamthatha e-Witwatersrand Medical School wayokufundela ubudorhodere.Kodwana ngebanga lokungatholi isekelo lemmali lokobana afunde eskolweni samaphilo, wathatha isiqunto sokobana afundele ubutitjhere wabhalisa e-Bantu Normal College wafundela i-diploma yokubangutitjhere.

Ukusebenza Njengotitjhere

Lokha uTutu asebenza njengotitjhere wahlangana noNomalizo Leah Shenxane, okhabe angutitjhere naye.Ababilaba batjhada ngomnyaka ka-1955 baba nabentwana abane.

UTutu wasula emsebenzini wokuba ngutitjhere nakuthoma umthetho wokobana bafundise i- Bantu Education, angafuni ukufundisa ifundiso enganabulungiswa egade ikatelelwa ngokobana amakhuwa akatelele ukufundisa ifundo yezinga eliphasi ngebanga lokunina abanye abantu ngebanga lebala labo. Waragela phambili wayokufundela imfundo zobufundisi e-St Peter’s Theology College eJwanisbhege. Lokhu kwambuyisela inzuzo ngonyaka ka-1960 lokha uTutu nakabekwa njengomfundisi wekerege i-Anglican.

Ukusukela ngonyaka ka-1962 ukuya ku-1966 wasebenzela ukuthola i-Bachelors kanye ne- Masters degree ku-Theology e- King’s College nge-London. Lokha uTutu aye enarheni yangaphandle wakhuthazwa yindlela abantu kade batjhaphuluke ngayo ukukhuluma ngananyana yini kanye nangendlela kade kulula ngayo kobana bathole ilwazi kanye nefundo akubonako. Wafuna bona abantu abanzima benarha yeSewula Africa baphile njalo nabo.

Umuntu Ohlonitjhwako

©Roger de la Harpe
Lokha uDesmond Tutu nakabuya eSewula Africa ngonyaka ka-1967, wajoyina abasebenzi be- Federal Theological Seminary e-Alice waba mfundisi eJunivesithi ye-Fort Hare.

Ngonyaka ka-1975, uTutu wabekwa wabayi-Dean of St Mary’s Cathedral, Jwanisbhege, msinya ngemva kokobana bamkhethe kobana abembhitjhobhi weLesotho. Unyaka ka-1975 kwakusikhathi esibudisi eSewula Africa kunemiguruguru yepolotiki abantu abanzima balwisana nepolotiki. Kwakungesikhathesi lapha uDesmond Tutu aqatjhwelwa isihlalo sokuba ngunobhala we- South African Council of Churches (SACC).

I-SACC ijamele woke amakerege amakhulu weSewula Africa, kunokobana ijamele ikerege ye-Dutch Reformed Church kanye nekerege ye-Catholic kwaphela. Ihlangano ye- SACC yaba yihlangano ekhamba phambili ngokomoya kanye nepolotiki yabazalwane beSewula Africa. Ngombana beyibapha iplatifomu yezinto ezibakhuthazako. Ngonyaka ka-1978 ukuya kwewaka-1985, uTutu khabe akhamba aziwa enarheni le nenarheni yangaphandle ngokulwa nokungabi kobulungiswa obenziwa ngurhulumende wegandelelo. UDesmond Dube waninkezwa unongorwana we- Nobel Prize for Peace ngonyaka ka-1984 ukumnikela ngendima eyidlalako ekuqedeni urhulumende wegandelelo

Ngonyaka ka-1985 uDesmond Dube wakhethwa wabanguMbhitjhobhi eJwanisbhege, ngeskhatheso waragela phambili wasunduzela kobana kube netjhuguluko, wagcugcuzela ibumbano hlangana kwabantu abanzima nabamhlophe bekerege ye-Anglican yeSewula Africa. Ngonyaka ka-1986 wakhethwa waba ngu- Archbishop weKapa ngonyaka ka-1987, uTutu wakhethwa wabanguMongameli we- All African Conference of Churches.

Ngemva Kwegandelelo

©Eric Miller
Ngemva kokobana urhulumende webandlululo aphele ngonyaka ka-1994, uTutu bamumema ukuba abengusihlalo we-Truth and Reconciliation Commission, amenywa nguNelson Mandela, ngethemba lokobana izokuletha ukuthula estjhabeni.

UTutu uhlonitjhwe enarheni le neyangaphandle, eminyeni edlulileko, ngendima ayidlalako nakalinga ukwenza iSewula Africa kobana ibe yinarha yabantu abalinganako. Ngemva kokobana babone ithando analo lefundo nenkondlo, uTutu sele bamuphe ama-degree wokumhlonipha ambalwa begodu iinkolo ezinengi kanye nemifundaze ithiyelelwe ngaye. Ngonyaka ka-1987 wathumba unongorwana ye- Pacem in Terris, ekungunongorwana othiyelelwe ngemncwadi ebuya ku- Pope John XXIII lapha abawa khoba abantu kobana babe nokuthula ephasini.

Ngonyaka ka-2008, u-Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich wamemezela bona i-13 ZA KAMEI kube yi-“Desmond Tutu Day” begodu ngonyaka ka-2017, uQueen Elizabeth II we-England wamkhetha kobana abe yi-Bailiff Grand Cross of the Venerable Order ye-St John.

Translated by Busisiwe Skhosana