uDesmond Tutu: Ukuba yiNkokheli

Wabekwa Njengo mPristi

©Eric Miller
Desmond Tutu at Soweto.
Ngethuba u Desmond Tutu eqala izifundo zakhe ze Theology/Ezakwa lizwi, wazibandakanya necawe wabe engafuni kuzibandakanya neze politiki. Kulo lonke ixesha lomsebenzi wakhe, wazama ukuba angazibandakanyi namaqela ezopolitiko. Kodwa indalo yakhe yobuntu, ayizange imvumele ukuba angakuhoyi ukungcungcutheka kwabantu phantsi komthetho wocalu-calulo. Wayephupha ngendawo apho abantu bonke bahlala ngokukhululeka ngaphandle kokuhlulwa ngokobuhlanga. Wayenombono wendawo apho kukho amalungelo alinganayo kumntu wonke, kungekho mithetho yase Mzantsi Afrika yamapasi, imfundo efanayo kwaye kungekho bantu base Mzantsi Afrika fuduselwa kwindawo zase “makhaya”.

Emveni kokuba uTutu wabekwa njengompristi ngomnyaka ka1960, wafudukela kwelase Uk ukuze aqhubeleke nezifundo zakhe ze theology. Wathi xa ephinda ebuyela eMzantsi Afrika, wanyanzeleka ukuba aphinde aziqhelanise nobomi obuphantsi kwengcinezelo. Ekubeni ebuyile, wasebenza njengomhlohli wase dyunivesithu, ngaphambi kokuba aphinde abuyele eUK ukuya kusebenza phantsi kwe Theological Education Fund (TEF). Apha ke wabona ucinezelo nakwamanye amazwe aziwa njenge Third World, ingakumbi amazwe akwilizwekazi lase Afrika.

Wadlala Indima ku Qhankqalazo

Wathi uTutu xa ebuyela eMzantsi Afrika ngomnyaka ka 1975 emva kwemfundo yakhe ye theology phesheya, wachongwa ukuba abeyi Dean yase St Mary’s Cathedral eJohannesburg waze ethubeni wabayi Bishop yase Lesotho. Kulapho ke waqala ukudlala indima enkulu ekulweni isimo sase Mzantsi Afrika. Ukuba ngusaziwayo nokukwazi ukufikelela kubantu abaninzi, uTutu wathetha phandle ngokungalingani kwezentlalo. Wasebenzisana namanye amagqala omzabalazo afana no Winnie Mandela kunye no Mamphela Ramphela, ekusasazeni umyalezo wabo. Wamemelela ukuba ihlabathi lingathengi izinto ezisuka eMzantsi Afrika waze wagxeka esidlangalaleni umthetho we Terrorism Act wango 1967, nowa wiswe ngurhulumente wobandlululo.

Kwinyanga phambi koqhankqalazo labafundi langomhla ka 16 Juni 1976, uTutu wathumela incwadi mbalelwano kulowo wayesakuba yi Prime Minister, John Vorster emcenga ukuba akhumbule indlela Amabhulu ayithathayo ukuze afumane inkuleleko yawo waze wacebisa neendlela zokuphelisa umzabalazo ukuze uMzantsi Afrika wonke ukhululeke. Walumkisa ngokwanda kobundlobongela ukuba umthetho wocalu-calulo awude ubhangiswe. Le ncwadi wayibhala ngelinge lokusasaza imiyalezo yezopolitiko. Bathi bakuqala uqhankqalazo abafundi, uTutu waxhasa abafundi kunye nabazali emveni kombhodamo owathi wenzeka.

iPaspoti ka Tutu Iyohluthwa

Ngomnyaka ka 1978 uTutu wonyulwa njengo Nobhala Jikelele we South African Council of Churches (SACC) kwaye wayezimisele ukusebenzisa isikhundla sakhe ukubeka lombutho phambili ekulweleni amalungelo abantu. Ngethuba omnye wabefundisi becawe, uJohn Thorne ebanjwa ngomnyaka ka 1980, uTutu wakhokela imatshi yokuqhankqalaza. Nto leyo yakhokelela ekubeni abanjwe naye. Yena kunye nabanye bagcinwa ubusuku bonke baze banikwa izigwebo zemali. Urhulumente wohlutha ne paspoti yakhe. Emva kwesi sehlo kwabanjwa intlanganiso phakathi kwee nkokheli zecawe kunye nohrulumente. uTutu kunye nowaye sakuba yi Prime Minister uPW Botha, wayephakathi kwabo.

Kulentlanganiso, icawe yacenga uhrulumente ukuba aphelise umthetho wocalu calulo phambi kokuba kwande ubundlobongela nokruthakruthano. Babuya nelize kule ntlanganiso, kodwa uTutu akazange aphele mandla, wazimisela ekufikeleleni kwiinkokheli zase Mzantsi Afrika. Umnyaka ka 1980, ikwangunyaka apho uTutu watyikitya ipetition ememelela ukukhululwa kuka Nelson Mandela entilongweni. Oku kwakhokelela ekuqaleni koqhagamshelwano phakathi kwesi sibini.

Ngethuba ebuyiselwa ipaspoti yakhe ngomnyaka ka 1981, lo ka Tutu watyelela amazwe ali 10 eEurope kunye nase Mntla Melika ukuze asasaze imeko zabantu abantsundu phantsi komthetho wocalu calulo. Wayecenga iinkokheli zala mazwe ukuba zihroxise iinkxaso ngezezimali nentengo (economic sanctions) ukuze zifake uxinzelelo kuhrulumente wase Mzantsi Afrika. Wathi xa ebuyela eMzantsi Afrika, yaphinda yohluthwa ipaspoti yakhe kwakhona. Uhrulumente wazama kangangoko ukutshabalalisa amandla ka Tutu. Elinye lala malinge yabakuku xhasa iChristian League, umbutho owathi wamkela imali ukuze uqhube iicampaign ezichasene ne SACC nalapho loka Tutu wayeyintloko.

Ukusasaza Umyalezo Woxolo

©Eric Miller
Archbishop Desmond Tutu.
Ngomnyaka ka 1982 uTutu wabhala incwadi mbalelwane eziya kwiinkokheli zelizwe, ngelinge lokusasaza umyalezo wakhe woxolo. Ezi zaziquka incwadi awayibhalela iPrime Minister yakwa Sirayeli ukuba ayeke ukuqhushumbisa indawo yase Beirut. Waphinda wabhalela nenkokhelo yama Palestina uYasser Arafat, embongoza ukuba anike ingqwalasela kubukho buka Sirayeli. Wabulela iinkokheli zamazwe ase Zimbabwe, Lesotho kunye nase Swaziland ngokugcina abaphambukeli belizwe loMzantsi Afrika, ebacenga nokuba bangabathumeli ekhaya aba baphambukeli.

Waye watyelela nelizwe lase Melika, asakubuyiselwa ipaspoti yakhe, ukuze enze intetho kwiTriennial Convention of the Episcopal Church. Ngethuba ekweli lizwe wagxeka owayengu Mongameli weloxesha uRonald Reagan, ngobudlelwane bakhe kunye nohrulumente woMzantsi Afrika. Watsho esithi, ngokwenza njalo uyahambisana nocalulo ngokobuhlanga. Waduma wathandwa luluntu lwase Melika. Wayefaniswa neqhawe labo lomzabalazo, uMartin Luther King Jr. Abamhlophe abangafuni tshintsho base Mzantsi Afrika, babengonwabanga kwaphela sesi senzo, baphendula ngezigxeko ezinomsindo.

uTutu wonyulwa njengomxhasi (Patron) wombutho we United Democratic Front (UDF) ngomnyaka ka 1983. Waxhasa unkosikazi wakhe uLeah, kwisicelo sakhe semeko ezingcono zabasebenzi basemakhitshini. Umnyaka ka 198, ngunyaka apho inkosikazi yakhe yancedisa ekusekweni kombutho omele abasebenzi basemakhitshini obizwe nge South African Domestic Workers Association. Ikwangunyaka apho uTutu wadibana ne Pope ukuze babonisane ngeemeko zase Mzantsi Afrika. Wathi akuva ukuba abantu bendawo yase Mogopa eNtshona Transvaal bazakufuduselwa emaphandleni ase Bophuthatswana, kwaye namakhaya abo aza kutshatyalaliswa, yena kunye nezinye iinkokheli zecawe benza umlaliso bethandaza. Phakathi kwababekhona yayingu Dr Allan Boesak.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana