Ukuba Umholi: Desmond Tutu

Unqunywe njengomPristi

©Eric Miller
Desmond Tutu at Soweto.
Lapho uDavid Desmond Tutu eqala isifundo sakhe semfundiso yenkolo futhi wahileleka esontweni wayengeke avulelwe ezombusazwe. Ngomsebenzi wakhe, wazama ukuhlala e-apolitical ngokungahambisani nanoma yiliphi iqembu elithile lezombangazwe. Kodwa isimo sakhe sokusiza sasingamvumeli ukuba anganaki ukuhlupheka ayekubona ngaphansi kohulumeni wobandlululo obandlululo.

Waphupha umphakathi wamahhala nombuso wentando yeningi ngaphandle kokuhlukana kwezinhlanga. Wacabanga umphakathi onamalungelo alinganayo aluntu kubo bonke, ngaphandle kwemithetho yaseNingizimu Afrika yokuPhepha, uhlelo olufanayo lwezemfundo futhi kungabikho ukuthunjelwa kwabantu baseNingizimu Afrika ukuba babizwe ngokuthi "izindawo zokuhlala.

Ngemuva kokuba uTutu amiswe njengompristi ngo-1960 wathuthela e-UK ukuze aqhubekisele phambili isifundo sakhe senkolo. Lapho ebuya eNingizimu Afrika kwadingeka aphinde ajwayele ukuphila ngaphansi kokucindezelwa. Lapho ebuya, wasebenza njengomfundisi ngaphambi kokuba abuyele e-UK asebenze ngaphansi kweTheological Education Fund (TEF) lapho evezwe khona ekucindezelweni kwamanye amazwe aseThathu, ikakhulukazi kulawo mazwe ase-Afrika.

Umsebenzi Wakhe Ekubhikisheni

Ngesikhathi uTutu ebuyela eNingizimu Afrika ngo-1975 emva kokufunda kwakhe kwezemvelo kwamanye amazwe, wamiswa uDean of St Mary's Cathedral eGoli kanti kamuva uMbhishobhi waseLesotho. Ngaleso sikhathi waqala ukudlala indima eyengeziwe ekuphikiseni isimo eNingizimu Afrika.

Ukuba ngumuntu ophakathi nokufinyelela ezilalelini ezinkulu, uTutu wakhuluma ngokungabi nabulungisa kwezenhlalakahle. Wabamba nezinye izimpawu ezinzima njengoWinnie Mandela noMamphela Ramphele ekusakazeni umyalezo wabo. Wabiza ama-boycotts ezomnotho emhlabeni wonke eNingizimu Afrika futhi wahlambalaza ngokusobala umthetho wobuphekula ngo-1967 owabekwa uhulumeni wobandlululo.

Inyanga ngaphambi kokuba umfundi evuke ngo-16 Juni 1976 uTutu wathumela incwadi evulekile ku-ke uNdunankulu, uJohn Vorster emcela ukuba akhumbule indlela abantu baseAfrika abayithatha ukuze bathole inkululeko yabo futhi baphakamise izindlela zokuqeda ngokuthula umzabalazo wenkululeko yonke yaseNingizimu Afrika. Uxwayise ngokudlwengula okungenakugwemeka uma ubandlululo lungasuswa phansi. Incwadi yakhe yabhalwa njengomzamo wokusabalalisa inkulumo-ze yezombusazwe. Lapho ukuvuswa kwabafundi ekugcineni kuqhuma, uTutu wabasekela abazali nabafundi ngemuva kwalokhu.

Ipasi lokuhamba laTutu libanjwa

Ngo-1978 uTutu wakhethwa uNobhala Jikelele weMkhandlu Wamasonto aseNingizimu Afrika (SACC) futhi wazimisela ukusebenzisa isikhundla sakhe ukubeka inhlangano phambili ekusebenziseni amalungelo omuntu. Lapho omunye wabafundisi besonto, uJohn Thorne, eboshwa ngo-1980, uTutu uholele umkhankaso wokubhikisha, okuholela ekuboshweni kwakhe. Yena nabanye baboshwa ngobusuku bonke futhi banikezwa izinhlawulo. Uhulumeni naye wathatha ipasipoti yakhe. Umhlangano phakathi kwabaholi besonto nohulumeni wenziwa ngemuva kwalesi sigameko, uTutu kanye noNdunankulu uPW Botha phakathi kwabo.

Emhlanganweni, ibandla lancenga uhulumeni ukuthi aqede ubandlululo ngaphambi kokuba kuqhume udlame nokuhlukumezeka okwengeziwe. Kwakungumhlangano ongenalutho, kodwa uTutu akazange aguquke ekuzimiseleni kwakhe ukuthola abaholi baseNingizimu Afrika. Ngonyaka ka-1980 futhi ngonyaka kaTutu wasayina isicelo sokuthi kukhululwe uNelson Mandela etilongweni, okwaholela ekusungulweni kokuxhumana phakathi kwalaba ababili.

Ngesikhathi iphoyisa likaTutu libuyiselwa kuye ngo-1981 wavakashela amazwe angu-10 eYurophu naseNyakatho Melika ukusabalalisa igama ngaphansi kwezimo ngaphansi kobandlululo, ecela abaholi bamazwe ukuba babeke izigwegwe zomnotho ezizobeka ukucindezelwa kuhulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika.

Lapho ebuya eNingizimu Afrika ipasipoti yakhe yathathwa futhi. Uhulumeni wazama konke okusemandleni akhe ukuvimbela ithonya likaTutu. Omunye umzamo onjalo wawungumxhasi we-Christian League, inhlangano eyamukele imali yokuqhuba imikhankaso ngokumelene neSACC iTutu eyayiyinhloko.

Ukuqhubeka noMlayezo Wokuthula

©Eric Miller
Archbishop Desmond Tutu.
Ngo-1982 uTutu wabhalela abaholi bezwe ngomzamo wokuqhubeka nomyalezo wakhe wokuthula. Lokhu kuhlanganisa izincwadi kuNdunankulu wakwa-Israyeli emcela ukuba ayeke ukuqhuma kwamabhomu eBeirut kanye nomholi wasePalestina u-Yasser Arafat amcela ukuba anikezele ngokwengeziwe ukuthi ukhona u-Israyeli. Wabonga abaholi baseZimbabwe, eLesotho naseSwaziland ngokubamba ababaleki baseNingizimu Afrika futhi bacela ukuba bangathumeli ababaleki ekhaya.

Wabuye wavakashela i-United States of America (USA), lapho ipasipoti yakhe ibuyiselwe kuye, ukwethula ikheli ku-Triennial Convention ye-Episcopal Church. Ngenkathi ekhona lapho, wagxeke uMengameli uRonald Reagan ngokusebenzisana kwakhe nohulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika, ethi uvume ukucwasa ubuhlanga ngokwenza kanjalo. Wathandwa ngumphakathi waseMelika owamfanisa nesithonjana sakhe somzabalazo, uMartin Luther King Jr. Abagcini bemhlophe eNingizimu Afrika abazange bahlatshwe umxhwele ngalokhu, bephendula ngokugxekwa okuthukuthele.

UTutu wakhethwa ukuba abe nguMphathiswa we-United Democratic Front (UDF) ngo-1983. Wabe esekela umkakhe, uLeah, ekubhenxweni kwezimo ezingcono zokusebenzela abasebenzi basekhaya. Ngonyaka we-1983 kwaba ngumnyaka owasiza wathola iNingizimu Afrika yabasebenzi baseNingizimu Afrika.

Kwakungumnyaka kaTutu ohlangene noPapa ukuxoxa ngezimo eNingizimu Afrika. Lapho ezwa ukuthi abantu baseMogopa eNtshonalanga Transvaal kwakudingeka basuswe ezweni lakubo iBhuhuthatswana futhi izindlu zabo ziyobhujiswa yena nabanye abaholi bebandla babenomsebenzi wokulala ebusuku. Phakathi kwabahlanganyeli kwakunguDkt Allan Boesak.

Translated by Nsika Khoza