Kuva murhangeri; Desmond Tutu

A vekiwa kuva mufundhisi

©Eric Miller
Loko Desmond Tutu a sungule tidyondzo ta yena ta theology kutani a hoxa xandla eka kereke se angahari eku tirheni eka tipolotiki. Hinkwaswo leswi hi ntirho wayena u ringetile kuva anga weli eka tipolotiki hikuva a ala kutitshuneta eka nhlangano wokarhi wa tipolotiki. Kambe ntumbuluko wa vumunhu bya yena abyi nwi pfumelelanga kuva a vona mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu wuya emahlweni wutshikelela vanhu. A lorha a vona tiko ra ntshunxeko na xidimokirasi laha kunga hava ku avana. A vona tiko leringana ndzingano eka timfanelo ta vanhu hinkwawo, laha kungariki na milawu ya mapasi, dyondzo yo ringana naswona kungavi na kurhurhisiwa ka vanhu hi nkanu laha Afrika Dzonga kuya ematiko xikaya.

Endzhaku kaloko Tutu a vekiwe kuva mufundzhisi hi lembe ra 1960 u rhurhele e UK kuyisa tidyondzo ta theology emahlweni. Loko a vuya laha Afrika Dzonga a fanele kutlhela a tolovela ku hanya ehansi ka ntshikelelo lowu anga suka awu siya loko a rhurha. Loko a vuya u fike a tirha tani hi muleteri loko anga se tlhelela nakambe e UK kuya tirha ehansi ka Theological Education Fund (TEF) laha nakona anga fika a kuma ntshikelelo eka matiko lawa yanga hluvuka ngopfu ngopfu loko ku pimanyisiwa na matiko ya Afrika.

Ku hoxa xandla eka kukombisa kuvilela

Loko Tutu a vuya nakambe laha Afrika Dzonga hi 1975 endzhaku ko yisa tidyondzo tayena e mahlweni ta theology ematikweni mambe, u thoriwile kuva Dean ya St Mary’s Cathedral e Johannesburg kutani endzhaku ayava Bishop wa Lesotho. Laha hikona anga sungula ku hoxa xandla swinene eka kukombisa kuvilela laha Afrika Dzonga. Kuva munhu wa ndhuma loyi akotaka ku fikelela vanhu votala, Tutu u vulavule ngopfu hi mintshikelelo leyinga kona e henhla ka vanhu. U sungule kutirhisana na valwela ntshunxeko vofana na Winnie Mandela na manana Mamphela Ramphele eka kuhundzisa hungu leri. U komberile leswaku matiko yale handle ya khirha tiko ra Afrika Dzonga eka timhaka ta ikhonomi kambe a soriwa swinene hi 1967 Terrorism Act leyinga tisiwa hi mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu.

Nhweti loko kungaseva na mikitsikitsi ya 16 June 1976 Tutu u rhumele papilla eka Prime Minister wa nkarhi walowo, John Vorster an’wi tsundzuxa hi ndlela leyi ma Afrikaners vanga yiteka kuya kuma ntshuxeko naswona a kombisa tindlela tinwana to rhula kuherisa xihlawuhlawu eka ma Afrika Dzonga. Uva lemukisile hiku hangalaka ka madzolonga loko xihlawuhlawu xoka xinga herisiwi. Papila ra yena ri bakanyeriwe etlhelo laha ari tekiwa tani hi kuringeta kulava kususa nyimpi ya tipolotiki. Loko mikitsikitsi yitava yisungurile, Tutu u seketerile vana na vatswari endzhaku ka sweswo.

Passport ya Tutu yi tekiwa

Hi 1978 Tutu u hlawuriwile kuva matsalani generali wa South African Council of Churches (SACC) naswona a tiyimiserile ku tirhisa xiyimo xa yena kuveka nhlangano lowu emahlweni ko lwela timfanelo ta vanhu. Loko un’we wati ministers ta kereke, John Thorne, ata khomiwa hi lembe ra 1980, Tutu u rhangele march waku kombisa kuvilela, leswinga endla leswaku nayena aya khomiwa. Yena na van’wana vapfaleriwile vusiku byin’we kutani va rihisiwa kunene. Mfumo wu teke na passport ya yena. Nhlengeletano exikarhi ka varhangeri va tikereke na mfumo wuve kona endzhaku ka sweswo, Tutu na Prime Minister PW Botha hinkarhi walowo avari kona eka nhlengeletano leyi. Eka nhlengeletano leyi, kereke yi kombele mfumo ku herisa xihlawuhlawu kungase van a madzolonga yotala naswona kusungule kuva na ntlimbo. Nhlengeletano leyi ayi tswalanga mihandzu, kambe Tutu anga tipfinyingi eka kutiyimisela kayena ku tihlanganisa na varhangeri va tiko ra Afrika Dzonga. 1980 ariri rona lembe leri Tutu anga sayina petition leyi ayi kombela leswaku Nelson Mandela a chuchiwa e khotsweni, leswinga endla leswaku kuva na kuburisana exikarhi ka lava mbirhi.

Loko Tutu atava a vuyiseriwe passport yayena hi 1981 u vhakele 10 wa matiko e Europe na North America ku hangalasa rito eka xiyimo xa xihlawuhlawu, a kombela varhangeri va matiko yalawo ku khirha tiko naku tshikelela mfumo wa tiko ra Afrika Dzonga. Loko a vuya laha tikweni ra Afrika Dzonga passport yayena yitlhele yitekiwa nakambe. Mfumo wu ringete hi matimba ku herisa nhlohletelo lowu Tutu ari nawona. Kuringeta kun’wana akuri loko ku seketeriwa Christian League hi swatimali, nhlangano lowunga amukela mali yaku fambisa mapfhumba yo lwisana na SACC laha Tutu ari nhloko ya kona.

Ku yisa emahlweni mahungu ya kurhula

©Eric Miller
Hi 1982 Tutu utsalerile varhangeri va tiko papilla hiku ringeta kuhundzisa mahungu yayena ya kurhula. Leswi swikatsa mapapila kuya eka Prime Minister of Israel laha an’wi kombela leswaku ayimisa ku tirhisa ti bomb e Beirut xikan’we na murhangeri wa Palestine Yasser Arafat kun’wi kombela leswaku a tekela enhlokweni vukona bya Israel. U khensile swinene vurhangeri bya tiko ra Zimbabwe, Lesotho na Swaziland kuva va amukele vahlampfa va tiko ra Afrika Dzonga xikan’we nakuva kombela leswaku vangava hlongoli vavuya e kaya.

Utlhele a vhakela tiko ra United States of America (USA), loko passport yayena yitlhele yivuyisiwa eka yena, laha anga nyika mbulavulo eka Triennial Convention ya Episcopal Church. Loko ari kwale u sole swinene President Ronald Reagan eka vuxaka lebyi arina byona na mfumo wa tiko ra Afrika Dzonga, laha avula leswaku a hlohletela xihlawuhlawu hi leswi aswi endla.

Uvile na ndhuma swinene eka vaaki va tiko ra Amerika lava avan’wifanisa na mulwela ntshuxeko wa tiko ra vona, Martin Luther King Jr. Valungu va xihlawuhlawu va tiko ra Afrika Dzonga avanga tsakisiwangi hi mhaka leyi, laha vanga n’wi hlamula naku sola hiku hlundzuka swinene.

Tutu u hlawuriwile kuva museketeri hi timali wa United Democratic Front (UDF) hi 1983. U seketele nsati wakwe, Leah, eka xikombelo xa yena xiyimo xa matirhelo xo antswa eka vatirhi vale tindlwini. 1983 akuri lembe leri Leah anga pfuneta ku sungula South African Domestic Workers Association. Kutlhele kuva lembe leri Tutu anga hlangana na Pope ku burisana hi xiyimo xa tiko ra Afrika Dzonga.

Loko atava a twe leswaku vanhu vale Mogopa e Western Transvaal ava fanele ku susiwa kuya e Bophuthatswana naswona makaya yavona yata mbindzimuxiwa naswona varhangeri va tikereke vave na murindzelo. Van’wana va lava avari kona akuri Dr Allan Boesak.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni