Kuba nguMholi: Desmond Tutu

Kubekwa njengeMfundisi

©Eric Miller
Kwatsi ngesikhatsi Desmond Tutu acala kufundzela ngelibhayibheli wase ucala kungenela tintfo tasesontfweni wase uncipha ngakutepoliti. Noma nje likusasa ngelikusasa lakhe, watama kuhlala angabi ngumpolitiki ngekutsi angavumi kutimbandzakanya nebantfu labanye bephathi yepolitiki. Kepha buntfu bakhe bebungamuvumeli kutsi anganaki lokuhlupheka bekakubona ngaphansi kwelibandlululo lebelicindzetela. Wabhudza indzawo lekhululekile futsi lebusako ngaphandle kwelubandlululo. Wabona indzawo yemalungel lalinganako awonkhe muntfu, ngaphandle kwemtsetfo welipasi lase Ningizimu Afrika, indlela yemfundvo leyatiwako kanye nekungabi nekuphocelelwa kuhanjiswa kwe bantfu kusuka eNingizimu Afrika bayiswe kutindzawo letibitwa nge “makhaya.

Ngemuva kwekubekwa kwa Tutu njengemfundisi wahamba waya eUK ayochubekisa imfundvo yakhe ngetelibhayibheli. Watsi nakabuya eNingizimu Afrika kwadzinga kutsi abuye abengaphansi kwemphilo yekucindzetelwa. Ekubuyeni kwakhe, wasebenta njengemfundzisi ngaphambi abuyele emuva eUK kuyosebenta ngaphansi kwe Theological Education Fund (TEF) lapho khona wabona kucindzeteleka kulamanye Angaphandle Esitsatfu, ikakhulu lawo kulamanye ase Afrika.

Umsebenti Wekwenta Ekubhikisheni

Ngesikhatsi Tutu abuya emuva eNingizimu Afrika nga 1975 ngemuva kwekufundza kwakhe emaveni ngebufundisi, wakhetfwa waba ye Dean yase St Mary’s Cathedral eGoli kwatsi muva waba ngu Bishop wase Lesotho. Kulapho ke acala kudlala indzima lenkhulu ekubhikisheni simo sase Ningizimu Afrika. Kuba ngumuntfu lowatiwako esiveni nekutfola litfuba kuba esicunjini lesikhulu, Tutu wakhuluma ngekungabikhona kwemtsetfo wekuhlanganyela. Wahlangana nalabanye bebalwelwa umzabalazo kufana na Winnie Mandela na Mamphela Ramphele ngekuhambisa imilayeto yabo. Wabita kuvalwa kweminotfo emaveni angaphandle kwase Ningizimu Afrika waphindze wagceka Lesento se Kuhlukumeta lokwabekwa ngulumende welubandlululo.

Kunyenga ngaphambi kwe kukhuphuka kwe bafundzi ngenyanga yeNhlaba natiLishumi nesitfupha nga 1976 Tutu watfumela incwadzi levulekile kulobekangu Ndvunankhulu, John Vorster amenta kutsi akhumbule lendlela Emabhunu layitsatsa kwentela kutfola inkhululeko yawo phindze aveta tindlela letincono tekuthula ekugcineni kwentela iNingizimu Afrika yonkhe kuze ikhululeke. Wacwayisa ngemsindvo lotowenteka uma lubandlululo lungapheli. Incwadzi yakhe yabhalwa njengentfo yekusakata kungavumelani ngetepolitiki. Ngesikhatsi labafundzi bengucuko bacala, Tutu wasekela labatali kanye nalabafundzi kulomshikashika.

iPassport ya Tutu Yatsatfwa

Nga 1978 Tutu wakhetfwa waba nguMabhalane weSive sase Ningizimu Afrika kuKhansela weMasontfo (South African Council Churches – SACC) futsi waphoceleleka kutsi asebentise lesikhundla sakhe kutsi afake lenhlangano phambili kwemalungelo ebantfu. Kwatsi lapho linye lilunga lebafundisi basesontfweni, John Thorne, aboshwa nga 1980, Tutu wahola umbhikisho, lowawuchubela ekuboshweni kwakhe. Yena nalabanye bahlaliswa busuku bonkhe base banikwa inhlawulo. Lohulumende waphindze wabamba ipassport yakhe. Ummhlangano emkhatsini webaholi bellisontfo kanye nahulumende wabanjwaa ngemuva kwalesehlakalo, Tutu nalobekanguNdvnankhulu PW Botha emkhat sini wabo.

Kulowo mhlangano, lelisontfo lacela lohulumende kutsi aphelise libandlululo ngaphambi kucale umsindvo lomningi nekucabana. Kwaba ngumhlangano longazange ubanemphumela lomuhle, kepha Tutu waguculeka ekufuneni kwakhe kutsi afike kubaholi be Ningizimu Afrika. Umnyaka wa 1980 kwaphindze kwaba ngumnyaka lapho khona Tutu asayina liphepha lebelibita kukhululwa kwa Nelson Mandela ejele, lokwakhokha kuvuleka lokucondzile emkhatsini walaba lababili.

Ngesikhatsi kubuyiswa ipassport ya Tutu kuye nga 1981 wavakashela emave lalishumi eEurope nase North America kuyohambisa ligama ngesimo selibandlululo, agcugcutela baholi balamanye emave kutsi bamise kupanishwa kwentsengo lokutofaka kucindzeteleka ku hulumende wase Ningizimu Afrika. Watsi nakabuya eNingizimu Afrika ipassport yakhe yatsatfwa phindze. Lohulumende wazama kakhulu kuvala loko Tutu bese akutfolile. Lokunye lakuzama kwaba kuFakela Litiko leNkholo, inhlangano lebeyimukela imali kwentela kugijimisa imikhankaso ku SACC lapho khona Tutu abeyinhloko.

Kuchubekisa Lomlayeto wekuThula

©Eric Miller
Ngemnyaka wa 1982 Tutu wabhala tincwadzi letiya kubaholi bemave entela kufuna kuhambisa umlayeto wakhe wekuthula. Loku kwafaka tincwadzi lebetiya ku Ndvunankhulu wase Israel kumcela kuutsi amise kubhomisa iBeirut kanjalo kumholi wema Palestinian Yasser Arafat kucela kutsi anike kunaka kahle kulabaphilako base Israel. Wabonga baholi base Zimbabwe, Lesotho nase Swaziland ngekugcina lebebabaleke eNingizimu Afrika waphindze wabacela kutsi bangababuyisi emuva ekhaya.

Waphindze wavakashela eUnited States of America (USA), ngesikhatsi ipassport yakhe ibuyisiwe kuye, kutsi akhulume kuMhlangano we Triennial weLisontfo le Episcopal. Ngesikhatsi alapho wagceka lobekadze anguMengameli Ronald Reagan ngebudlelwane labugcina nahulumende wase Ningizimu Afrika, watsi wavumela kuchubeka kwelubandlululo ngekwentanjalo.

Wacala kwatiwa ngekuvela esiveni sase America lebesesimutsandza ngekuhlukunyetwa kwelichawe laso, Martin Luther King Jr. Labo labamhlophe base Ningizimu Afrika abazange bachazeke ngaloko, baphendvula ngekugceka kwentfukutselo.

Tutu wakhetfwa njengaLomelele iUnited Democratic Front (UDF) nga 1983. Wasekela umkakhe, Leah, ngesicelo sakhe sekusebenta ngaphansi kwendlela lencono kubasebenti basetindlini. Umnyaka wa 1983 kwaba ngumnyaka lasita ngawo kucala Inhlangano yeTisebenti Tasetindlini eNingizimu Afrika.

Kwaphindze kwaba ngumnyaka lapho Tutu ahlangana na Pope kuyokhuluma ngalesimo sase Ningizimu Afrika. Watsi nakeva kutsi labantfu base Mogopa eWestern Transvaal bebatosuswa kuya emakhayeni aseBophuthatswana kantsi nemakhaya abo abetobulawa yena kanye nebaholi labanye basesontfweni babamba umlindzelo. Kulabobebakhona Kwaku na Dokotela Allan Boesak.

Translated by Phindile Malotana