UDesmond Tutu: Ubamdosiphambili

Ubekwa Njengomfundisi

©Eric Miller
Lokha uDesmond Tutu nakathoma ukufunda iimfundo zebhayibheli azibandakanya ekeregeni gade sevele azibandakanye kwezepolotiki. Umsebenzinakhe woke, walinga ukobana ahlale asepolotikini ngokwala ukobana akhethe ihlangano yinye yepolotiki athi uyayilandela. Kodwana ukuba nobuntu kwakhe kwemvelo akhange kumenze abethele emthalazeni ukutlhagiswa ngurhulumende wegandelelo. Gade abhudanga kobana kube nenarha etjhaphulukileko engakahlukaniswa ngobuhlanga. Inarha enamalungelo alinganako yawo woke umuntu, enganamthetho wamapasi weSewula Africa, ifundo efanako yaye woke umuntu begodu kungasaba nokubuyiselwa ngekani kwabantu beSewula Africa emizini yemakhaya.

Ngemva kokobana uTutu abekwe njengomfundisi ngonyaka ka-1960 wabuyela e-UK, wayokuragela phambili ngemfundo zakhe zobufundisi. Lokha nakabuyela eSewula Africa kwafanela godu kobana ajwayele ipilo yokugandelelwa. Lokha nakabuyako, wasebenza njengo-lecture ngaphambi kokobana afudukele e-UK ayokusebenza ngaphasi kwe-Theological Education Fund (TEF) lapha athola khona ukugandelelwa eenarheni ze-Third world, khulukhulu lezo ezisenarheni ezinye ze-Africa.

Umtjhagalo Otjhaphulukileko

Lokha uTutu nakabuya eSewula Africa ngonyaka ka-1975 ngemva kokuphetha iimfundo zakhe ngaphetjheya, wakhethelwa isikhundla sokuba yi-Dean ye- St Mary’s Cathedral eJwanisbhege kwathi lada waba Mbitjhobhi weLesotho. Kulapho athoma ukudlala indima eqakathekileko ekulwisaneni nobujamo iSewula Africa egade iqalene nabo. Ngombana gade kumumuntu owaziwako uTutu wakhuluma ngokungaphathwa kuhle kwabantu ngurhulumende wegandelelo. Wasebenzisana nabantu egade balwela ikululeko abafana noWinnie Mandela kanye noMamphela Ramphela ekurhatjheni imilayezo yabo. Wabiza kobana kube nemitjhagalo eenarheni zangaphandle, kobana zitjhagalele iSewula Africa wabe wagceka umthetho wangonyaka ka-1967 i-Terrorism Act eyenziwa ngurhulumende wegandelelo.

Inyanga ngaphambi kokobana abafundi bathome umtjhagalo abawenza ngezi16 zakaMgwengweni ngonyaka ka-1976 uTutu wathumela incwadi kuMinista wangesikhatheso uJohn Vorster amkhumbaza indlela amabhuru ayithathako kobana athole itjhaphuluko yawo begodu abeka umbono wokobana baqede ngokuthula umtlhago nokobana yoke iSewula Africa ithathe itjhaphuluko. Wabayekelelisa ngomguruguru ozokubhebhetheka babhalelwe kuwukhandela nange kungaqedwa ukugandelelwa kwabantu. Incwadakhe ayitlola khange inakwe kwathiwa ulinga ukurhatjha i-propaganda. Lokha nakuthoma umguruguru wabafundi uTutu wasekela ababelethi kanye nabafundi nawuqeda ukwenzeka.

Kuthathwa i-Passport kaTutu

Ngonyaka ka-1978 wakhethwa njengonobhala zombelele we-South African Council of Churches (SACC) begodu gade azimisele ukusebenzisa istulwesi ukubeka ihlangano le ngaphambili ekulweleni amalungelo wabantu. Lokha omunye uMinista wekerege enye, uJohn Thorne abotjhwa ngonyaka ka-1980, uTutu arhola umtjhagalo owenziwa ngoNtaka, ekwarholela kobana abotjhwe naye. Yena nabanye babotjhwa ubusuku boke banikezwa amafayini. Urhulumende wathatha ama-passport wabo. Kwabanjwa umhlangano hlangana nabadosi phambili kanye norhulumende ngemva kwalokho, uTutu kanye noMinista uPW Botha nabo bebakhona.

Nakuphela umhlangano loyo, ikerege yabawa urhulumende kobana aqede ibandlululo ngaphambi kokobana kubeneminye imiguruguru nokungazwani. Kwaba mhlangano onganapumelelo, kodwana uTutu akhange aphele amandla ekuzimiseleni kwakhe ekufikeleleni abadosiphambili beSewula Africa. Ngonyaka ka-1980 lapha kwabamnyaka uTutu asayina iphethitjhini ebawa kobana kutjhatjhululwe uNelson Mandela ejele, eyarholela ekutheni ababilaba bathome ukutlolelana iincwadi.

Lokha nabamubuyisela iphasiphodi yakhe ngonyaka ka-1981 wakweriyela iinarha ezilisumu ezise Europe kanye ne-North America ukuyokurhatjha amagama ngobujamo abaphila kibo ngaphasi kwakarhulumende webandlululo, abawa abadosi phambili benarhezo kobana bajezise inarha le ngokuyidima imali okuzokugandelela urhulumende weSewula Africa.

Lochay nakabuya eSewula Africa bathatha iphasiphodi yakhe. Urhulumende walinga ngamandla ukobana ikhandele umonakalo uTutu egade sele awenzile ngokukhuluma njalo. Okunye akwenzako nakalinga ukwenza njalo kukobana asekele ngokwemmali ihlangano ye-Christian League, ekwakuyihlangano ethatha imali, iyithathela ukwenza amakhampeyini angakhambelani nehlangano ye-SACC egade idoswaphambili nguTutu.

Uragela Phambili Umlayezo Wokubawa Ukuthula

©Eric Miller
Ngonyaka ka-1982 uTutut watlola incawadi ayitlolela abadosiphambili benarha le, ababawa bona balethe ukuthula. Incwadi le wayitlolela uMinista we-Israel ambawa bona alise ukubhoma inarha ye-Beruit, enye wayitlolela umdosiphambili wePalestina uYasser Arafat amabawa kobana atjhetjhe ukubakhona kwenarha ye-Israel. Wathokoza abadosiphambili beZimbabwe, Lesotho kanye neweSwazini ngokuhlalisa abantu ababalekele enarheneza wabawaba bona bababuyisele emakhaya.

Wamema ianarha ye-United States of America (USA), lokha nabambuyisela i-passport yakhe kobana bamnikeze iadresi e-Triennial Convention ye- Episcopal Church. Lokha alapho wasola uMongameli uRonald Reagan ngobudlelwane asese nabo norhulumende we Sewula Africa, ngokobana athi usekela igandelelo ngokwenza njalo. Wathandwa khulu bahlali be-America abamfanisa nekutana yabo ayalelwa ukuqedwa kwegandelelo u-Martin Luther King Jr. Amakhuwa weSewula Africa akhange akuthande lokho, aphendula ngokukwata okukhamba nebandlululo phakathi.

UTutu wakhethwa waba yi-Patron ye-United Democratic Front (UDF) ngonyaka ka-1983. Wasekela umfazakhe uLeah, lokha nakabawa kobana abasebenzi bemakhitjhini basetjenziswe ngaphasi kobujamo obuncono. Ngonyaka ka-1983 ekumnyaka arhelebha watlama ihlangano yabonomakhitjhi i-South African Domestic Workers Association.

Nekumunyaka lapha uTutu ahlangana no Pope bakhulumisana ngendaba zeSewula Africa. Lokha nakezwa bona abantu be-Magopa eWestern Transvaal basusiwe eBophuthatswana begodu imiziyabo iyokoniwa yena nabadosiphambili bekerege babamba umlindelo. Hlangana nabenza njalo kwakukhona noDorhodere u-Allan Boesak.

Translated by Busisiwe Skhosana