Iindidi zeeBhokwe Zenyama eMzantsi Afrika

© Susan Schoenian University of Maryland Extension

Unintsi lwendidi zebhokwe ezingama 570 zaphuma kwindidi ezintathu zebhokwe. Ezi ndidi zeebhokwe zii Bezoar, Savannah kunye ne Nubian

Ukwenziwa kwebhokwe yohlobo lwe Boer, kohlukile njengoko yona ingazange yenziwe ngokudibanisa iindidi ezimbini nangaphezulu zeebhokwe. Ndaweni yoko, ookhokho beebhokwe zohlobo lwe Boer zachongwa kwiibhokwe ezazisele zikhona eMzantsi Afrika zaze zaphuhliswa kwiminyaka yoo1950 liqela lamafama akwisithili sase Somerset East kwiphondo le Ntshona Koloni eMzantsi Afrika.

Uphando ngenyama yebhokwe aluhoywanga xa kuthelekiswa nolo lwenziwayo ngezinye iintlobo zezilwanyana ezivelila inyama. Noxa kunjalo, uMzantsi Afrika sele uzenzele igama ehlabathini jikelele, ngomsebenzi wokuvelisa ibhokhwe yohlobo lwe Boer.

Ngelixesha kuphuhliswa ibhokwe ye Boer, kwakusenziwa uphando ngu Devendra kunye no Burns (1983). Olu phando lwesi sibini lwalusenziwa kwiibhokwe zase Mpuma Afrika. Oku kwabonakalisa ithemba elikhulu lomvuzo kwezibhokwe zincinane zomeleleyo, xa kubhekisele kwimveliso eyaneleyo yenyama.

Iindidi zeBhokwe zeNyama eMzantsi Afrika

Eyona ndidi yebhokwe ihamba phambili yi Boer, kwaye ibonwa njengeyona bhokwe inenyama emnandi ehlabathini liphela. Iye ibalasele nangakumbi ukuba yondliwe ngendlela efanelekileyo. Le bhokwe ibonakalisa iimpawu zokukhula ezihamba phambili, inyama kunye nesiqu esinenyama evamise ukuba ngaphaya kwama 50%.

Ezinye iindidi zebhokwe ezihamba phambili eMzantsi Afrika ziiKalahari Red kunye ne Savanna, nekwaziwa nge ‘Boer’ kodwa enombala othile owahlukileyo. Uhlolo lwe DNA lubonise ukuba kukho umahluko omkhulu phakathi kwe bhokwe zohlobo lwe Boer kunye ne Kalahari Red logama ungekho mkhulu kangako kwibokwe zohlobo lwe Boer kunye ne Savanna.

Ibhokwe yohlobo lwe Kalahari Red ibonwa njenge ndidi yebhokwe yalapha emvelaphi ilapha eMazantsi Afrika. Ushicilelo lubonisa ukuba ezibhokwe zachongwa kwizilwanyana ezineendlebe ezingathi zisikiwe nezaziswa ziintlanga ezafudukela kwingxenye esemazantsi eAfrika kwiminyaka engaphaya kwama 2000 eyadlulayo. Umbala wayo obomvu krwe wesikhumba wenza lebhokwe isitheke ingabonakali kwizilo zasendle ezinokuzihlasela. Kwaye zomelele, ziyakwazi nokumelana nobushushu nembalela.

Ibhokwe yohlobo lwe white Savanna yaphuhliswa ngomnyaka ka 1955 kwaye ibonwa njenge ndidi ekwaziyo ukumelana nembalela. Kwaye ivelisa inyama yomzimba engatyebanga kodwa enencasa. Ziyakwazi ukutshintsha zihambelane nalo ndawo zibekwe kuyo. Zingaphila kakuhle kumadlelo endalo (intensive pastures) kunye nakumadlelo okutya enziwe ngabantu (extensive grazing systems).Ezibhokwe azinamaxesha athile okuzala. Iinkunzi ezitheniweyo zohlobo lwe Savanna zikhula kakuhle, kwaye ziyakhawuleza ukukhula ngokugqibeleley.

Iibhokwe zohlobo lwe Savanna zinenyama yomzimba edibeneyo- Izihluni zayo kunye namanqatha zihambelana nokumila kwamathambo.

Iibhokwe Zase Mzantsi Afrika

Kukho iindidi ezine zeebhokwe ezaphuma kwezinye kwiindidi ezahlukeneyo (subspecies).ke zezalapha eMzantsi Afrika. Ezi ndidi zi:Yintlobo yabeNguni (Mbuzi), Eastern Cape Xhosa Lob-ear, Northern Cape Speckled kunye nendidi eyi Kunene (Kaokoland). Ibhokwe zalapha eMzantsi Afrika ziyakwazi ukumelana nembalela kwaye zomelele kune bhokwe zohlobo lweBoer. Ezi bhokwe azihlaselwa lula sisifo esibizwa nge heart water,nesibangelwa yimikhanzi.

Uphando olwenziwe ngu Ramsay, Smit & Casey (1987) lwathelekisa iibhokwe zalapha Mzantsi Afrika kunye nebhokwe yohlobo lwe Boer. Babeka ezibhokwe kwiindawo ezinokuba nezifo ezifana ne goat protozoal, foot rot, parasites kunye nezityalo eziyityhefu. Iinkcukacha ngezibhokwe zonke yashicilelwa yaze yahlolwa kwiNational Scheme.

Ezi nkcukacha zabonakalisa ukuba iibhokwe ezinemvelaphi yalapha eMzantsi Afrika zivelisa inyama eninzi kunee bhokwe zohlobo lwe Boer. Uninzi lweebhokwe ezinemvelaphi yase Mzantsi Afrika zithengiswa kumashishini angabhaliswanga/amancinci zize zixhelwe ngendlela yakudala. Kwaye ubunintsi bazo kusube zixhelelwa amasiko.

Ibhokwe eyiTankwa

Ibhokwe esandula kufunyana ebizwa nge Tankwa izakubhaliswa kwiSebe leZolimo, Amahlathi neeNtlanzi lase Mzantsi Afrika- South Africa’s Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). njenge ndidi yebhokwe yohlobo lwe landrace. Ngokubhalwe ngu Thinus Jonker wesebe lezolimo lephondo loMntla Koloni, iTankwa ibonakala njenge bhokwe enenyama entle.

Nangona ingenanyama zomzimba zifanayo neze ndidi ezintathu zebhokwe ezizi Boer, ifumana amanqaku amaninzi ekungahlaseleki lula zizifo, izala rhoqo kwaye iyakwazi ukukhathalela amatakane ayo- Isenokuphuhliswa nangakumbi ke xa inokudityaniswa nenye indidi ukuze kuphume indidi eyahlukileyo.

Ibhokwe eyiAngora Njenge Bhokwe Yenyama

Xa sele uboya be bhokwe yohlobo lwe Angora buba grangqalala, ezi bhokwe ziyakhethwa zize zihanjiswe. Malunga nama 90% ezi bhokwe sele zindala zithunyelwa kwiphondo la KwaZulu-Natal ukuze zithengiselwe abantu abazaku zisebenzisela amasiko. Ixabisa kakhulu xa ithengiswa iphila kuna xa iyinyama ecukuceziweyo.

Isibalo senyama yomzimba sibancinci kakhulu, ngama 30 - 35% kuphela xa ithelekiswa neye bhokwe zohlobo lwe Boer, zona zinesibalo esingama 50%. Inyama yale bhokwe ke kodwa iyathamba ngaphezu kwebhokwe yohlobo lweBoer. Xa ithelekiswa neebhokwe zohlobo lwe Boer (22.8%) kunye neebhokwe ezinemvelaphi yase Mzantsi Afrika (24.3%), iAngora ineyona proteni iphezulu (29.1%). Inyama yeAngora ayinamanqatha kakhulu (4.4%) xa ithelekiswa namanqatha enyama yebhokwe ye Boer (10.5%)kunye nebhokwe yaseMzantsi Afrika (7.9%).

Translated by Zizipho Silwana