Tinxaka ta Timbuti ta Nyama eAfrika Dzonga

© Susan Schoenian University of Maryland Extension
Tinxaka totala ta laha misaveni ta 570 wa tinxaka ta timbuti emisaveni hinkwayo ti endliwe hi tinxaka tinharhu ta timbuti – laha kungana timbuti ta Bezoar, Savannah na Nubian.

Ku tumbuluka ka mbuti ya Boer, hambiswiritano, yihlawulekile hikuva ayi landzelelangi kuhlanganisiwa ka tinxaka timbirhi kumbe ku tlula. Ematshan’wini, swikwembu swa mbuti ya Boer swihlawuriwile kusuka eka timbuti tale kaya eAfrika Dzonga kutani yi tumbuluxiwa hiva 1950s hi mintlawa ya van’wamapurasi vale Somerset East exifundzheni xa Eastern Cape eAfrika Dzonga.

Vulavisisi eka vufuwi bya timbuti ta nyama byina vusupfa loko byi pimanyisiwa na tinxaka tin’wana ta vuhumelerisi bya nyama ya swifuwo, hambi leswi Afrika Dzonga ritekeriwaka enhlokweni e matikweni hinkwawo ya misava eka ntirho wa rona waku humelerisa mbuti ya muxaka wa Boer.

Hinkarhi walowo waku tumbuluxiwa ka mbuti ya Boer vulavisisi hi Devendra na Burns (1983) byi endliwile eka timbuti taxikaya ta East African. Leswi swikombe kululamela kuhumelela swinene hikwalaho ka kutiyela loko swita eka vuhumelerisi bya kahle bya nyama.

Tinxaka ta Timbuti ta Nyama eAfrika Dzonga

Mbuti yikulu ya nyama i muxaka wa Boer, lowu tekiwaka wuri kahle swinene eka nyama emisaveni hinkwayo. Yina mphakelo wa kahle wa nyama. Muxaka lowu wukomba kukula kahle swinene eka nyama na ntsumbu laha kungana mbuyelo lowu hundzaka 50%.

Tinxaka tinwana letikulu ta timbuti e Afrika Dzonga i Kalahari Red na Savanna, leti tlhelaka titekiwa tani hi mbuti ya ‘Boer goats’ kambe tiri na muhlowo wokarhi. Swikombelo swa DNA swikomba leswaku kuna kuhambana lokukulu swinene eka ti genes exikarhi ka mbuti ya Boer na Kalahari Red kutlula ya Boer na Savanna.

Mbuti ya Kalahari Red yi tekiwa tani hi muxaka wa mbuti yale kaya leyi tumbulukaka e Dzongeni wa Afrika. Matsalwa ya komba leswaku timbuti letinga hlawuriwa kusuka eka leti tingana tindleve ta swirhendzevutani letinga rhurha na tinxaka tale dzongeni wa Afrika kwalomu ka kutlula 2000 wa malembe lawa yanga hundza. Muhlovo wotshuka wa 100% wa nhlonge wu endla leswaku tikota kutumbelela valala enhoveni naswona titsindziyerile, tikota ku kondzelela kuhisa na dyandza.

Mbuti ya muxaka wa white Savanna wutumbuluke hi lembe ra 1955 naswona awu tekiwa wuri muxaka lowu kondzelelaka dyandza lowu humesaka ntsumbu woka wunga nyuhelangi. Tikota ku hatla titolovela xiyimo naswona tinga tirhisiwa kahle eka madyelo xikan’we na laha ku tikaka swinene.

Timbuti leti ati tswali kuya hi tinguva. Timbuti ta xinuna ta Savanna wethers (castrated rams) tikula kahle swinene naswona ti hatlisa titlhela tiva exikarhi ku kula. Timbuti ta Savanna tihumesa ntsumbu lowunga vumbeka kahle – ku bumbula ka timayisele na xivumbeko xa rhambu.

Timbuti Tale Kaya

Kuna tinxaka ta mune letinga e hansi ka leti tivekaka ta xikaya ta laha Afrika Dzonga – muxaka wa Nguni (Mbuzi), Eastern Cape Xhosa Lob-ear, Northern Cape Speckled na muxaka wa Kunene (Kaokoland). Timbuti ta xikaya tikondzelela ngopfu dyandza naswona ti tsindziyerile kutlula muxaka wa mbuti ya Boer naswona tikota ku kondzelela mavabyi ya heartwater, mavabyi ya nghozi swinbene eka timbuti.

Vulavisisi bya Ramsay, Smit & Casey (1987) abyi pimanyisa mbuti ya xikaya na mbuti ya Boer eka tindzhawu leti mavabyi ya protozoal, foot rot, ti parasites na swimilani swa phoyizeni aswiri swirhalanganya. Timbuti leti ti tsarisiwile kutani ti langutisisiwa eka National Scheme kutani vuxokoxoko byi kombe leswaku mbuti ya xikaya ayi humesa nyama yotala swinene ha yin’we ku tlula mbuti ya Boer.

Timbuti totala ta xikaya ti xavisiwa hi mani na mani laha tixaveriwaka ku dlayiwa hi ndlela ya ndzhavuko.

Mbuti ya Tankwa

Muxaka lowu waha kukumekaka wa Tankwa wule kutsarisiweni tani hi muxaka wa landrace na va South Africa’s Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF). Kuya hi Thinus Jonker wa Northern Cape department of agriculture, mbuti ya Tankwa yikomba vuswikoti swinene tani hi mbuti ya nyama.

Loko hile tlhelo yinga kombi swihlawulekisi swa ntsumbu tani hi tinxaka tinharhu ta Boer, leswinene hitona – kunga kukondzelela ti parasite na mavabyi, ku kota kutswala nakuva mutswari wa kahle- swinga antswisiwa loko tihlanganisiwa.

Mbuti ya Angora Tani hi Mbuti ya Nyama

Loko mohair fibre ya mbuti ya khale ya Angora yitsindziyela ngopfu, timbuti ta hlawuriwa kuva tiya herisiwa. Kwalomu ka 90% wa timbuti letikulu ti rhumeriwa exifundzheni xa KwaZulu-Natal kuva tiya xavisiwa leswaku tita tirhisiwa eka mintirho ya xintu.

Tikuma nxavo wakahle loko tixavisiwa tirikarhi ti hanya kutlula loko ti dlayiwile kuva ti xavisiwa hi nyama eka ti abattoir. Nhlayo wa ntsumbu kuya eka nyama wuva wuri hansi swinene hikwalomu ka 30 - 35% loko ku pimanyisiwa na kwalomu ka 50% wa timbuti ta Boer – kambe xivumbeko xa nyama xivevukile swinene kutlula timbuti ta Boer.

Loko ku pimanyisiwa timbuti ta Boer (22.8%) xikan’we nata xikaya (24.3%), Angora yina nhlayo yale henhla ya ti protein (29.1%). Nyama ya mbuti ya Angora nayona yina nhlayo yale hansi swinene ya mafurha laha kunga (4.4%) loko ku pimanyisiwa na 10.5% (nyama ya Boer) na 7.9% (nyama ya mbuti ya xikaya).

Translated by Ike Ngobeni