Izilwane Zenyama eNingizimu Afrika

© Susan Schoenian University of Maryland Extension
Iningi lezinkomo zezinkomo ezingu-570 zomhlaba emhlabeni zakhiwe kusuka ezinhlotsheni ezintathu zezimbuzi - izinhlobo zeBozoar, Savannah neNubian.

Ethuthukiswa kwembuzi ye-Boer, noma kunjalo, ihlukile ngoba ayizange ilandele ukuhlukana kwezinhlobo ezimbili noma ngaphezulu ezihlanzekile. Esikhundleni salokho, okhokho bezimbuzi zeBoer bakhethwa emikhakheni yembuzi yaseNingizimu Afrika futhi kwathuthukiswa ngawo-1950 yiqembu laba abalimi esifundeni saseSomerset East esifundazweni saseMpumalanga Kapa eNingizimu Afrika.

Ukucwaninga ngemfuyo yezimbuzi kungenakuqhathaniswa uma kuqhathaniswa nezinye zezilwane ezikhiqiza imfuyo, kodwa iNingizimu Afrika isiye yaqashelwa umhlaba wonke ngomsebenzi wayo ekuthuthukiseni ukwenziwa kwezimbuzi zeBoer.

Phakathi nesikhathi esifanayo nokuthuthukiswa kocwaningo lwezimbuzi zeBoer ngu-Devendra no-Burns (1983) kwenziwa ngezimbuzi zasemakhaya zaseMpumalanga Afrika. Lokhu kubonise amandla amakhulu alawa ma-ruminants amancane ngokukhiqiza inyama.

Izilwane Zenyama I eNingizimu Afrika

Inyama enkulu yembuzi imfuyo iyimbuzi ye-Boer, ibhekwa njengempilo engcono kakhulu yezimbuzi emhlabeni. Unesilinganiso sokuguqulwa okungcono kunokudla kokudla. Uhlobo luveza izici ezinhle zokukhula, izici zenyama kanye nezidumbu ezinomkhiqizo ngokuvamile ezidlula 50%.

Ezinye izinhlobo ezimbili eziyinhloko zezinkomo zembuzi eSouth Africa yi-Kalahari Red ne-Savanna, futhi zibhekwa njengezimpondo ze-Boer kodwa zemibala ethile. Ukuhlolwa kwe-DNA kukhombisa ukuthi kukhona umehluko omkhulu wezakhi zofuzo phakathi kweBoer ne-Kalahari Red kunezimbuzi zeBoer kanye ne-Savanna.

I-Kalahari Red ibhekwa njengezinkomo zemvelo ezivela eNingizimu Afrika. Amarekhodi akhombisa ukuthi izimbuzi zikhethiwe ezilwaneni ezihamba kahle ezifuduka nezizwe ezingxenyeni eziseningizimu ye-Afrika eminyakeni engaphezu kuka-2000 eyedlule. Umbala obomvu obunamaphesenti angu-100 uhlinzeka ngokufiphala kusuka ezihlakalweni zasendle futhi ziqinile, zikwazi ukumelana nokushisa nesomiso.

I-white Savanna imbuzi yasungulwa ngo-1955 futhi ibhekwa njengesizalo esingasomiso esibelethwayo esibangela isidumbu esinokulinganisela. Ziyakwazi ukuzivumelanisa nezimo futhi zingasetshenziswa ngempumelelo emadlelweni amakhulu kanye nasezintweni eziningi zokudla. Ababona abalimi bonyaka. Ama-Savanna wethers (izinqama ezinqanyisiwe) anezinga eliphakeme lokukhula futhi lihlobo lokuqala ukuya ekukhuleni. Izimbuzi ze-Savanna ziveza izidumbu nge-conformation enhle - ukuqina kwamasipha namafutha maqondana nesakhiwo samathambo.

Imbuzi yaseMdabu

Lezi zinhlobo ezine ze-eco-types (subspecies) zezimbuzi zendabuko eNingizimu Afrika - uhlobo lwe-Nguni (Mbuzi), e-Eastern Cape Xhosa Lob-indlebe, eNyakatho Kapa i-Speckled kanye nohlobo lwe-Kunene (i-Kaokoland). Izimbuzi zendabuko zinomsoco onamandla kakhulu futhi unamandla kunezimbuzi zeBoer futhi ezingaphansi kwamanzi enhliziyo, isifo esibucayi esibangwa yi-tick.

Ucwaningo olwenziwa nguRamsay, Smit & Casey (1987) lwaqhathanisa imbuzi yendabuko kanye nembuzi yeBoer ezindaweni lapho izifo ze-protozoal, ukubola kwezinyawo, ama-parasites nezitshalo ezinobuthi ziyizinto ezivimbela.
Izimbuzi zabhalwa futhi zahlolwa kwiSikimu kaZwelonke kanti idatha yabonisa ukuthi imbuzi yendabuko yakhiqiza inyama eningi endaweni eyodwa kunezimbuzi zeBoer.

Izimbuzi eziningi zomdabu zithengiswa emkhakheni ongakahleleki futhi zihlatshwa ngendlela yendabuko.

Imbuzi yeTankwa

I-goat ye-Tankwa esanda kutholakala yinkqubo yokubhaliswa njengomhlobo wezimbuzi ezihamba emzimbeni kanye noMnyango wezoLimo, amaHlathi kanye namaFisheries eNingizimu Afrika (DAFF). Ngokusho kukaThithus Jonker weMnyango wezolimo eNyakatho Kapa, ​​i-Tankwa ibonisa amathuba amakhulu njengembuzi yenyama. Ngenkathi ingabonakali izici ezifanayo zezidumbu njengezinhlobo ezintathu zezinkomo zeBoer, amaphuzu abo aqinile - izimpande kanye nokuphikisa izifo, ukuzala nokuzala kahle - kungathuthukiswa nge-inbreeding.

I-Angora Goat Njengenyama Yembuzi

Lapho i-mohair fiber yezimbuzi ezindala ze-Angora ziba zimbi kakhulu, izimbuzi zikhethiwe ukuze zikhishwe. Cishe amaphesenti angama-90 alaba asebekhulile athunyelwa KwaZulu-Natali ukuthi athengiswe emakethe yendabuko. Ithola intengo engcono (isisindo esibukhoma) kunokuthengisa inyama nge-abattoir yezohwebo. Nokho, isilinganiso senyama-nenyama sincane kakhulu - kuphela 30 - 35% kuphela uma kuqhathaniswa no-50% wezimbuzi zeBoer - kodwa ukuthungwa kwenyama kungcono kunalokho kwezimbuzi zeBoer.

Uma kuqhathaniswa nezimbuzi ze-Boer (22.8%) kanye nezimbuzi zendabuko (24.3%), i-Angora inokuqukethwe okuphezulu kwamaprotheni (29.1%). I-Angora inyama nayo inenani lamafutha (4.4%) uma kuqhathaniswa no-10.5% (inyama yezimbuzi ze-Boer) no-7.9% (inyama yembuzi yembuzi).

Translated by Nsika Khoza