Amaqhawe Omzabalazo Avalelwe eRobben Island

Amabanjwa ambalwa Okuqala

©Eric Miller
Iinkokheli kunye nabameli bombutho we African National Congress yaba ngabantu bokuqala ukuvalelwa. Bakhawuleza balandelwa ngabameli bemibutho ephikisayo, nababeqokelelwe ngobuchule baze baya kulahlwe kwesi siqithi ukuze bangadali inkathazo. Eminyakeni, amalungu ePAC, ANC, iSouth West African People’s Organisation (SWAPO), iNational Liberation Front, the African People’s Democratic Union of South Africa, i non-European Unity Movement, the Liberal Party, iUnited Democratic Front, iIndian Congress, iAzanian People’s Organisation (AZAPO), iinkokheli ze Black Consciousness nabanye abaninzi baye bavalelwa e Robben Island. Abantu abakulentilongo babenembono ezahlukileyo. Kwakubakho ungquzulwano phakathi kwalamaqela amatyeli athile, ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo olu ngquzulwano lwalukhuthazwa ngabasemagunyeni alentilongo.

Amaqhawe Adumileyo Omzabalazo Abanjwa

©Eric Miller
iRobben Island yayingeyondawo yokugcina amalungu eANC kuphela. Njengokuba besele kukhankanyiwe ngentla, amawaka amajoni enyawo ‘aqhelekileyo’ ayevalelwa kulentilongo, kunye namagama amakhulu afana noJohn Nyathi Pokela, Johnson Mlambo, Zephania Mothopeng, Andimba Toivo ya Toivo (from SWAPO), Neville Alexander, Billy Nair, Sonny Venkatrathnam, Kader Hassim, Fikile Bam, Eddie Daniels, Mac Maharaj, Harry Gwala kunye no Wilton Mkwayi (nowalwa nabasemagunyeni alentilongo iminyaka engama 25 ukuze afumane imvume yokutshata isithandwa sakhe uIrene). Kwiminyaka yee 70 kunye neyee 80, abaphathiswa bekhabhinethi bangomso kunye neenkokheli zopolitiko ezifana no Steve Tshwete, Kgalema Motlanthe, Tokyo Sexwale, Jacob Zuma, Saths Cooper, Mosiuoa ‘Terror’ Lekota, Joe Seremane, Strini Moodley kunye no Ronnie Mamoepa nabo bachitha ixesha lapho kwesi siqithi.

Ityala Lika Robert Sobukwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Iqhawe elibalulekileyo lomzabalazo elalivalelwe eRobben Island yayingu Robert Sobukwe, umseki we PAC. Enombizane kwaye engavumi nje nantoni, uSobukwe wayephakathi kwamabanjwa okuqala ezopolitiko abanjwa ngeentsuku zengxwabangxwaba eSharpeville. Wakhawuleza wavalelwa waze wachitha iminyaka emithathu e Pretoria Central. Sathi sakuphela isigwebo sakhe, uhrulumente akafuna ukumkhulula kuba ebonwa njengonobungozi kakhulu.

Ngoko ke umthetho omtsha wapasiswa nowachaza ukuba uSobukwe angagcinwa eluvalelweni ubomi bakhe bonke. Ngaphandle kokumbeka zityholo zimbi, de abe kanti wenza abasemagunyeni bamkholelwe ukuba akazukuphehluzelisa umthetho. Yabizwa ngokuba yi Robert Sobukwe clause. Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo uSobukwe wala ukuhambisana nalomthetho karhulumente waze wathunyelwa eRobben Island. Kodwa nalapho wayebonwa njengonobungozi. Waye akavunyelwa ukuba ahlale kwintilongo ekugcinwe kuyo abanye.

Endaweni yoko wabekwa kwindlu esecaleni kwelali waze wabekelwa qelele kuwo onke amanye amabanjwa. Kanganeminyaka elithoba, kwindlwana enamagumbi amabini egadwe ngalo lonke ixesha. Wayengavumelekanga ukuba atyelelwe okanye athethe naye nabani na. Ukubekwa kwakhe yedwa kwakuphelele, kuthiwa waphantse waphulukana nesakhono sokukwazi ukuthetha. Ngamatyeli ngamatyeli kwakumana kufika isituji esithunywe ngu rhulumente kulendlu simthembise inkululeko yakhe uSobukwe ukuba nje angancama umzabalazo. uSobukwe wayesala rhoqo. Nangona elika Sobukwe ityala lalohlukile, impatho yawo onke amabanjwa ezepolitiki ase Robben Island yayikhohlakele kwaye imuncu, ingakumbi kwiminyaka ephambi kuka 1965.

Uninzi lwabagcini ntilongo babengafundanga ncam kwaye benomona wemfundo yamabanjwa abawagadileyo. Esi siqithi sasikude emehlweni ehlabathi, abasebenzi babengenza nantoni na bangabonwa. Ngaphandle koko, yayiyinto efanele iintshaba, izaphuli mthetho. Ukuthetha inyani kodwa kufanele kukhankanywe ukuba impilo yonogada wasentilongweni e Robben Island yayinzima. Babene shift ezinde, iyunifomu ebandayo kunye nabaphathi abagadalala abasasaza inzondo kunye noloyiko kuluntu olumhlophe lonke.

Elona Banjwa Lidumileyo eRobben Island Prisoner: uNelson Mandela

©Eric Miller
Ngomnyaka ka 1962, abasemagunyeni babambisa intlanzi enkulu, isikhulu se ANC esibizwa ngo Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela. Wabanjwa ngethuba eqhuba esingise e Howick eNatala ukudibana nomongameli we ANC, uAlbert Luthuli (Umwongwa woXolo-Nobel Peace Prize wokuqala eMzantsi Afrika). Indoda efunwa ngabomthetho, uMandela wayezenze umqhubi wabantu ukuze alahle umkhondo, kodwa amapolisa ayesele entluvisiwe (mhlwawumbi ngumntu ocaphukela amakomanisi?) Waze wabanjwa e Natal Midlands. Kwithutyana elifutshane emva koko, amapolisa agagana neqela lamalungu aphezulu e ANC ayedibanise iintloko kwifama ebizwa nge Liliesleaf, eRivonia, Johannesburg.

Baze babanjwa bonke, kwaye bonke kuquka no Mandela babekwa amatyala okungcatsha, ukumosha ngenjongo, ubukomanisi, nokuzama ukubhukuqa uhrulumente. Umtshutshisi wafuna isigwebo sentambo, kodwa kuba exhalele ukuhlokoma kwehlabathi, iRivonia Eight’ yagwetya ubomi entilongweni. uNelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Achmed Kathrada, Andrew Mlangeni, Elias Motsoaledi, Govan Mbeki kunye no Raymond Mhlaba bahamba ngenqanawe ukuya eRobben Island. uDenis Goldberg wathunyelwa e Pretoria Central. Kunye no Luthuli ephantsi kovalelo lwasendlini, u Oliver Tambo eselubhaxweni, urhulumente wayephumelele ukuvala imilomo iqela eliphikisayo ngeminyakana nje embalwa. Noxa kwakunjalo, umzabalaz waqhubeka, ekhusini.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana