Amaqhawe Omzabalazo eboshwe eRobben Island

Abokuqala Abambalwa Ababoshwa

©Eric Miller
baholi nababemele i African National Congress babe ngabakoqala ukuboshwa. Babe sebelandelwa ngababemele izinhlangano ezazimelene nombuso, ababoshelwa amanqina enyathi qede batakishwa bayogqonywa eRobben Island ukuze bangabe besabanga uchuku. Eminyakeni amalunga e PAC, ANC, South West African People’s Organisation (SWAPO), awe-National Liberation Front, yi-African People’s Democratic Union of South Africa, yi-non-European Unity Movement, yi-Liberal Party, yi-United Democratic Front, yi-Indian Congress, yi-Azanian People’s Organisation (AZAPO) nawe Black Consciousness, avalwa umlomo eRobben Island.

Ngenxa yalokho umoya wasejele wawungesiwo owabantu abamqondo munye ncimishi futhi lokho kwakwenza kubuye kube nodweshu kwimaqeqebana, lokho okungangabazeki kwakubaselwa ngabaphathi bejele.

Amaqhawe Aqavile Omzabalazo Aboshwa

©Eric Miller
I-Robben Island yabe ingesiyo indawo yokugqoma abakaKhongolose kuphela. Njengoba sesike sachaza ukuthi zinkulungwane zamabutho omgundatshani nawo agqonywa, emagameni amaningi ngo John Nyathi Pokela, Johnson Mlambo, Zephania Mothopeng, Andimba Toivo ya Toivo (we SWAPO), Neville Alexander, Billy Nair, Sonny Venkatrathnam, Kader Hassim, Fikile Bam, Eddie Daniels, Mac Maharaj, Harry Gwala no Wilton Mkwayi (owalwa nabaphathi bejele iminyaka ewu 25 ukuba ashade isithandwa sakhe u Irene).

Eminyakeni yo 1970 no 1980, ababezoba ngongqongqoshe nosombusazwe abanjengo Steve Tshwete, Kgalema Motlante, Tokyo Sexwale, Jacob Zuma, Saths Cooper, Mosiuoa ‘Terror’ Lekota, Joe Seremane, Strini Moodley no Ronnie Mamoepa nabo bachithekelwa isikhathi sabo esiqhingini.

Icala Lika-Robert Sobukwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Iqhawe lomzabalazo elabe lisemqoka ekuboshweni, eRobben Island kwabe kungu Robert Sobukwe, umsunguli we PAC. Umholi owayenohlonze ewunkunzi kayihlehli, USobukwe ungomunye wabaholi bokuqala ababoshwa emva kwezibhelu zase Sharpeville. Wabanjwa ngokushesha wagqonywa ejele elikhulu lasePitoli iminyaka ewu 3. Okwathi uma isigwebo sakhe sesiphelile kodwa wangadedelwa, wayethathwa jengoyingozi kuhulumeni. Ngakho kwabe sekushawa umthetho omusha wokuba agcinwe ejele uSobukwe, ngaphandle kwamacala angabekwa wona, kuze kubi yisikhathi lakhona angenza abaholi be apartheid bakholwe ukuthi angeke asalwa nombuso wabo. Lowothetho wawubizwa nge Robert Sobukwe Clause.

Akazange afune ukuba wugingqigongqo kahulumeni futhi lokho kwamenza ayiswe eRobben Island, Nakhona lapho wayesatshwa okwenza ukuba anqatshelwe ukuboshwa ndawonye ejele elikhulu nabanye. Kunalokho wakhelwa indlwanyana ethe qikelele emphethweni wejele ukuze angalokothi abe nabanye ejele. Iminyaka ewu 9 wahlala kulelokotshana lendlu enamakamelo amabili eqashiwe. Wayengavunyelwe ukuvakashelwa kunye nokukhuluma nomuntu. Ukulahlwa kwakhe eceleni kwakuwumqansa omkhulu kuze kuthiwe wacisha waba yisimungulu. Kwakude kufika izithunywa zikahulumeni zizomnunusela uSobukwe ngokuthi akakhohlwe ngumzabalazo ukuze athole inkululeko yakhe kodwa wayaye anqabe.

Nanxa icala lika Sobukwe lalihlukile, ukuphathwa kweziboshwa eRobben Island kwakuwubuphukuphuku futhi kuyisihluku, ikakhulukazi ekuqaleni ko 1965. Abaningi ojele babengafundle. Isiqhingi sasiqhelene futhi namehlo omhlaba, okwakenza izisebenzi zejele zenze noma yini eziyithandayo. Ngaphandle kokuthi, kwakuyilokho amakhomanisi nezitha zikahulumeni ezazikufanele. Eqinisweni asikusho ukuthi, impilo ejele ngaphansi kwesandla sojele yayinzima. Babesebenza amahora amade, benomfaniswano omncu nabaphathi abangobhongoza ababetshala inzondo nokwesaba kuyo yonke indawo yabamhlophe.

Isiboshwa Sase Robben Island Esidume kakhulu: uNelson Mandela

©Eric Miller
Ngo 1962, Abaphathi be Apartheid babamba ufishi omkhulu, umholi omkhulu we ANC obizwa ngokuthi uNelson Rolihlahla Mandela. Wabanjwa ehamba ngemoto eHowick eNatal eya emhlanganweni nomengameli we ANC, inkosi Albert Luthuli (ongowukuqala ukuwina indondo i Nobel-Peace Prize). Lendoda yayifunwa kakhulu, uMandela wehliswa isithunzi, okucaca ukuthi amaphoyisa ayenikwe i tip yohambo lwakhe (okungenzeka yi CIA njengoba yayingongqondongqondo ababezonda ubukhomonisi) nebala wabanjwa maphakathi ne Natali.

Masisha amaphoyisa aqoqa iqoqo losomaqhinga be ANC ababehlangene eplazini i Liliesleaf, eRivonia eGoli. Baboshwa bonke, noMandela, babekwa icala lokuketula umbuso nokuwuceka, kanjalo nobukhomonisi. Ababekwa icala bacela ukugweba isigwebo sentambo, kodwa ekwesabeleni izililo ezaziqhamuka phesheya, labasolwa abangu 8 base Rivonia bagwejwa udilika jele. UNelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Achmed Kathrada, Andrew Mlangeni, Elias Motsoaledi, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba bayiswa e Robben Island.

UDenis Goldberg wayiswa ejele elikhulu lase Pitoli. ULuthuli yena wayeboshwe ukuba angaphumi ngaphandle komuzi wakhe u-Oliver Tambo wayesekudingisweni, uhulumeni wabe usuwathulisile amaphekulazikhuni eminyakeni nje emibalwa. Nanxa kunjalo, umzabalazo waqhubeka ngomshoshaphansi.

Translated by Sbonelo Ngema