Valwela ntshuxeko vapfaleriwa e Robben Island

Vabohiwa vosungula

©Eric Miller
Varhangeri va vandla ra African National Congress na vayimeri va rona akuri vona vosungula ku pfaleriwa e khotsweni leriya. Kungari khale kuvuye kutisiwa vayimeri va mavandla lawa yanwana yokaneta, lava ava vekiwa hi xikongomelo xakuva veka leswaku vanga tisi mpfilu mpfilu etikweni. Eka malembe lawa yotala, swirho swa mavandla ya PAC, ANC, South West African People’s Organisation (SWAPO), National Liberation Front, African People’s Democratic Union of South Africa, the non-European Unity Movement, Liberal Party, United Democratic Front, Indian Congress, Azanian People’s Organisation (AZAPO), Black Consciousness na varhangeri va wona ava pfaleriwa e Robben Island. Vanhu lava avari e khotsweni leri avari kule na ntlimbo lowu awurikona himinkarhi na minkarhi naswona aswi hlohleteriwa hi varhangeri va Khotso.

Valwela ntshuxeko va ndhuma vapfaleriwa

©Eric Miller
Robben Island aku ngo hlayisiwa swirho swa vandla ra ANC ntsena. Tani hileswi swinga hlamuseriwa laha henhla, magidigidi wa vabohiwa vohambana hambana ava pfaleriwa exihlaleni lexi kukatsa na mavito lawa yakulu swinene yofana na John Nyathi Pokela, Johnson Mlambo, Zephania Mothopeng, Andimba Toivo ya Toivo (wa SWAPO), Neville Alexander, Billy Nair, Sonny Venkatrathnam, Kader Hassim, Fikile Bam, Eddie Daniels, Mac Maharaj, Harry Gwala na Wilton Mkwayi (loyi anga lwa na vurhangeri bya Khotso kuringana 25 wa malembe kuva a kuma mpfumelelo wo teka murhandziwa wa yena Irene). Hiva 70s na 80s, swirho swa khabinete ya mundzuku na vurhangeri bya tipolotiki kufana na Steve Tshwete, Kgalema Motlanthe, Tokyo Sexwale, Jacob Zuma, Saths Cooper, Mosiuoa ‘Terror’ Lekota, Joe Seremane, Strini Moodley na Ronnie Mamoepa navona vatirhele swigwevo swavona exihlaleni lexiya.

Nandzu wa Robert Sobukwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Ximunuhatwa xa nkoka eka kulwela ntshuxeko lexi axi pfaleriwile e Robben Island akuri Robert Sobukwe, musunguri wa vandla ra PAC. Tani hileswi atele vumunhu nakuka anga twisisi, Sobukwe ari eka vanwani lava vanga khomiwa vaya pfaleriwa e khotsweni leri endzhaku ka madzolonga yale Sharpeville. U hatle a gweviwa laha anga tshama malembe yanharhu e khotsweni ra Pretoria Central. Loko xigwevo xa yena xiherile, mfumo awunga lavi kunwi tshunxa hikuva ativeka ari nghozi swinene. Laha kunga nghenisiwa nawu wuntshwa lowu awuku Sobukwe anga tshamisiwa e khotsweni vutomi byayena hinkwabyo, kungari na milandzu yinwana kufikela loko a tshembise mfumo leswaku angaka anga ha lweli ntshunxeko eka mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu. Nawu lowu awuvuriwa “Robert Sobukwe clause”.

Sobukwe u arile kulandzelela leswi mfumo awunwu chavisa hiswona laha swinga endla leswaku ayisiwa e Robben Island. Nakwale xihlaleni atekiwa tani hi munhu loyi a chavisa swinene laha anga pfumeleriwi ku tshama e khotsweni navanwana. Leswi swi endle leswaku a vekiwa endlwini leyi ayiri ehandle ka ndzhawu ya vaaki leswaku atava kule na vabohiwa lavanwana. Ku ringana nkaye wa malembe u tshamile eka yindlu leyintsongo ya tikamara timbirhi laha a tshama a rindziwile.

Anga pfumeleriwi kuva na vuyeni naswona ayirisiwile ku vulavula na vanhu. Kutshamisiwa ari swakwe aswi helerile leswinga endla leswaku a hetelela angaha koti kuvulavula kahle. Nkarhi wihi na wihi murhumiwa wa mfumo ata fika kunwi kambela loko Sobukwe anga lavi ntshuxeko ntsena loko atshika kulwela ntshuxeko. Sobukwe anga pfumeli minkarhi hinkwayo. Hambi leswi mhaka ya Sobukwe ayi hambanile makhomiwelo ya swivochwa e Robben Island aya vava xikanwe no pfumala vutlhari ngopfu ngopfu eka malembe yosungula loko kunga se fika 1965. Valanguteri votala va Khotso avanga dyondzekangi leswi aswi endla leswaku vanga tirhi ntirho wa vona hiku hetiseka.

Xihlala lexi axiri kule swinene na matihlo ya misava naswona vatirhi va Khotso ava endla swilo hiku rhandza ka vona. Hambi swiritano leswi akuri leswi mathororisi, makhomonisi na valala va mfumo ava ringaneriwe hi swona. Swifanele kuvuriwa leswaku vutomi bya mulanguteri wa Khotso e Robben Island aswi tika swinene. Ava tirhisiwa ti awara to leha, vari na yunifomo yovevuka naswona ava xanisiwa hi vurhangeri bya vona lava ava haxa rivengo naku chava eka valungu hinkwavo.

Mubohiwa wa ndhuma wale Robben Island: Nelson Mandela

©Eric Miller
Hi 1962, varhangeri va xihlawuhlawu vatikhomele dyi hlampfi ledyikulu, xirho nkulu xa vandla ra ANC nkulukumba Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela. U khomiwile hinkarhi lowu aya e Howick e Natal kuya hlangana na president wa ANC, Albert Luthuli (Mu Afrika Dzonga wosungula kukuma Nobel-Peace Prize). Wanuna loyi ari ekulavekeni, Mandela ati tumbete tani hi muchayeri, kambe maphorisa ava lumiwe ndleve (kumbe xani hi CIA?) hikwalaho anga khomiwa e Natal Midlands.

Endzhaku ka sweswo, maphorisa vafike vakuma ntlawa wa swirho nkulu swa ANC eka nhlengeletano e purasini leri vitaniwaka Liliesleaf, e Rivonia, Johannesburg. Hinkwavo ka vona vakhomiwile, xikanwe na Mandela, vahehliwa hi nandzu wa treason, sabotage, vu khomonisi xikanwe no ringeta ku vutla mfumo. Vuchuchisi abyi kombele leswaku vakuma xigwevo xa rifu, kambe hikuva mfumo wu chava leswaku matiko ya misava yata lwisana na vona, ntlawa lowu awu vitaniwa ‘Rivonia Eight’ wu gweviwe vutomi hinkwabyo. Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Achmed Kathrada, Andrew Mlangeni, Elias Motsoaledi, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba vayisiwile e Robben Island. Denis Goldberg yena ayisiwa e Pretoria Central. Kasi Luthuli avekiwa endlwini kasi Oliver Tambo aya evuchavela whawha, hindlela leyi mfumo awu miyete mavandla yokaneta hixinkarhana xintsongo. Hambi swiritano, kulwela ntshunxeko swiye mahlweni exihundleni.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni