Iingorho zomtlhago zivalelwa e-Robben Island

Ukubotjhwa okumbalwa kokuthoma

©Eric Miller
Abadozi phambili, kanye nabajameli behlangano ye-African National Congress kwaba ngebokuthoma ukubotjhwa. Kwathi msinya ngemva kwalokho walandelwa bajameli behlangano ephikisako, ebegade bazombelezwe ebebenjwa bafakwa e-island lapha gade bangeze badala imiraro. Eminyakeni leyo amalunga we- PAC, ANC, South West African People’s Organisation (SWAPO), National Liberation Front, African People’s Democratic Union of South Africa, i-non-European Unity Movement, Liberal Party, United Democratic Front, Indian Congress, Azanian People’s Organisation (AZAPO), Black Consciousness kanye nabadosi phambili bawo,nabanye abanengi babotjhwa basiwa e-Robben Island. Abantu egade babotjhwe ejelapho gade bangafani, njeke fade kuhlale kunezipi, ezizigcugcuzelwa baphathi bejele.

Abalweli bekululeko abakhunjulwako bayabotjhwa

©Eric Miller
I-Robben Island kwakungasilijele lokubobha amalunga we-ANC kwaphela. Njengoba kutjhiwo ngaphambili amakhulu wamajoni akhamba ngenyawo avalelwa khona,kanye nabanye bamabizo amakhulu ,abafana noJohn Nyathi Pokela, Johnson Mlambo, Zephania Mothopeng, Andimba Toivo ya Toivo (we-hlangano ye-SWAPO), Neville Alexander, Billy Nair, Sonny Venkatrathnam, Kader Hassim, Fikile Bam, Eddie Daniels, Mac Maharaj, Harry Gwala kanye no Wilton Mkwayi (owalwa nabaphathi bejele iminyaka eyi-25 afuna imvume yokutjhada unakwakhe u Irene). Ngeminyaka yabo – 70 kuya yabo-80, uMinista wakusasa wesigungu sesibethatha mthetho kanye nabanye abadosi phambili bepolotiki abafana no Steve Tshwete, Kgalema Motlanthe, Tokyo Sexwale, Jacob Zuma, Saths Cooper, Mosiuoa ‘Terror’ Lekota, Joe Seremane, Strini Moodley kanye no Ronnie Mamoepa nabo babotjhwa bahlala e-island le.

Umlandu ka Robert Sobukwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Enye yengorho ezibalulekileko zeskhathi somtlhago eyabotjhwa eRobben Island kwakungu Robert Sobukwe, ongumtlami wehlangano ye-PAC.Obegade azethemba begodu aphikisana nombuso webandlululo, gade ahlangana nembotjhwa zokuthoma zepolotiki ezabotjhwa ngamalanga wehlangahlangano le Sharpeville. Wagwetjhwa iminyaka emithathu ejele lePitori/Pretoria central. Kwathi nasiphelako, urhulumende gade angafuni ukumkhipha ngombana gade bambona ayingozi khulu. Njeke batlama umthetho omutjha owawuthi uSobukwe aragele phambili ahlale ejele, nanyana angasenamlandu abekwe wona, kuze kube sikhathi lapha athembisa amapholisa bona angeze asalwa norhulumende webandlululo. Umthetho loyo wabizwa bona yi-Sobukwe clause.

USobukwe akhange asenze isithembiseso, okwadala bona urhulumende amthumele eRobben Island. Kodwana nalapho gade solo abonwa ayingozi, begodu begade angakavunyelwa ukuhlala ejele elikhulu nezinye iimbotjhwa. Kunalokho bambeka kwenye indlu kude nendaweni le ye-Robben Island ukwenzela bona angahlali nezinye iimbotjhwa. Wahlala lapho emzini omncani onamakamero amabili ahlale agadwe bonogada iminyaka elithoba. Gade angakavunyelwa bona abe nemvakatjhi, begodu gade bangafuni akhulume nabanye abantu ,gade ahlala ayedwa poro.Kuthiwa wagcina angasakghoni ukukhuluma.Kwakuthi ngeva kwesikhatjhana kuze isithunywa sikarhulumende simazise bona bazomtjhaphulula kwaphela nakangavuma bona angaze asaphikisana norhulumende webandlululo.

Nanyana umlandu kaSobukwe ugade ongohlukileko ,imbotjhwa zoke kwembotjhwa zoke zepolotiki ejele leRobben Island gade ziphathwa kabuhlungu, begodu ngobudlhadlha khulukhulu ekuthomeni kweminyaka yangaphambi ko-1965.Abonogada abanengi gade bangakafundiseki kuhle begodu bahloye nokufunda kwezinye iimbotjhwezo. I-island nayo kade ikude namehlo wephasi, abasebenzi bejele gade bakghona ukwenza nanyana yini bangabonwa. Nanyana kunjalo kufanele kutjhiwo bona, ipilo yabonogada bembotjhwa zeRobben Island gade ibudisi. Ngombana gade basebenza isikhathi eside, bagcoka ijinifomu engakafuthumali, begodu batlhagiswa nabaphathi babo, egade bakghatjha ihloyo nokusaba emphakathini woke wamakhuwa.

Isibotjwa seRobben Island esidume khulu: Nelson Mandela

©Eric Miller
Ngonyaka ka-1962 abadosi phambili bakarhulumende webandlululo bazithola bakomkhulu umraro, Ilunga lehlangano ye- ANC obizwa bona nguNelson Rolihlahla Mandela. Wabanjwa lokha asaya e-Howick ngale nge-Natal ayokuhlangana nomdosi phambili we-ANC, uAlbert Luthuli (omthumbi kanongorwana wokuthoma we- Nobel-Peace Prize). Begade ayindoda efunwako, uMandela gade azifihle njengomtjhayeli, kodwana kukhona osele agade alume amapholisa indlebe (Hleze gade kumakhomanisi agade amhloyile?) Wabotjhwa njalo ke e-Natal Mdilands.

Msinya ngemva kwalokho,amapholisa aziphosela ewomeni lamanye amalungu amakhulu we-ANC abegade ahlanganele eplasini elibizwa bona se-Lilieslief, e-Rivonia ngeJwanisbhege, babotjhwa boke kanye noMandela babekwa umlandu wokuvukela umbuso, wobukhomanisi kanye nokwenza amano wokuketula umbuso.Gade bafuna bathi akathole isgwebo sentambo kodwana ngokusaba iinarha zangaphandle, ’i-Rivonia Eight’ yagcina sele ithole isgwebo sokudilikelwa lijele. UNelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Achmed Kathrada, Andrew Mlangeni, Elias Motsoaledi, Govan Mbeki kanye no Raymond Mhlaba bathathwa ngesikepe basiwa e Robben Island. Kwathi u Denis Goldberg wathunyelwa ejele lePitori. Ulithuli yena wabotjhwa ngendlini u Oliver Tambo aye ekudingisweni, urhulumende gade sele akghonile ukuthulisa ihlangano ephikisana naye ngesikhathi seminyaka emcani.Nanyana kunjalo, ukuphikisana naye kwaragela phambili kodwana ngomtjhotjhaphasi.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe