Bagale ba Kgaratlho ba ba golegetsweng mo Robben Island

Ditlhatlhêlô di le mmalwa tsa ntlha

©Eric Miller
Baeteledipele le baemedi ba African National Congress e ne ele ba ntlha go ka tlhatlhêlwa. Ba ne moragonyana ba kopanngwa le baemedi ba mekgatlho e mengwe ya kganetso, ba o ba neng ba phuthilwe ka matsetseleko le go ka latlhelwa kwa setlhaketlhakeng mo ba se kitlang ba baka merusu. Mo dingwageng, maloko a PAC, ANC, South West African People’s Organisation (SWAPO), National Liberation Front, African People’s Democratic Union of South Africa, non-European Unity Movement, Liberal Party, United Democratic Front, Indian Congress, Azanian People’s Organisation (AZAPO), baeteledipele ba Black Consciousness le ba bangwe ba le ba ntsi ba ne ba golegelwa mo Robben Island. Morafe wa mo kgolegelong ka jalo o ne o tswakatswakane mme dikgotlhang magareng ga maphata a a farologaneng di ne tsa runya nako le nako, ka go tlhoka pelaelo di ne di rotloetswa ke balaodi ba kgolegelo.

Bagaka ba Kgaratlho ba ba Lemosegang ba ba Golegilweng

©Eric Miller
Robben Island e ne e sa boloke fela batho ba ANC. Jaaka go kailwe fa godimo, diketekete tsa balwela-kgololosego ba ba 'tlwaelesegileng' ba ne ba tlhatlhetswe mo setlhaketlhakeng, mmogo le maina a mangwe a a tumileng, jaaka John Nyathi Pokela, Johnson Mlambo, Zephania Mothopeng, Andimba Toivo ya Toivo (gotswa SWAPO), Neville Alexander, Billy Nair, Sonny Venkatrathnam, Kader Hassim, Fikile Bam, Eddie Daniels, Mac Maharaj, Harry Gwala le Wilton Mkwayi (yo o lweleng le balaodi ba kgolegelo dingwaga di le 25 gore a bone tetla ya go nyala moratiwa wa gagwe Irene). Ka dingwaga tsa bo-70 le bo-80, ditona tsa isago tsa khuduthamaga ya puso le baeteledipele ba sepolotiki jaaka Steve Tshwete, Kgalema Motlanthe, Tokyo Sexwale, Jacob Zuma, Saths Cooper, Mosiuoa ‘Terror’ Lekota, Joe Seremane, Strini Moodley le Ronnie Mamoepa le bona ba ntse nako mo setlhaketlhakeng.

Kgetse ya ga Robert Sobukwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Mogaka wa kgaratlho yo o botlhokwa yo o tlhatlhetsweng mo Robben Island e ne ele Robert Sobukwe, mothei wa PAC. A le matlhagatlhaga le bodipa, Sobukwe e ne ele mongwe wa bagolegwa ba sepolotiki ba ntlha ba ba tshwerweng mo malatsing a dikhuduego a morago ga Sharpeville. O ne a atlholwa ka bonako, mme a nna dingwaga di le tharo kwa kgolegelong ya Pretoria Central. Fa katlholo ya gagwe e wela, mmuso o ne o sa batle go mo golola jaaka ane a kaiwa fa a le kotsi thata. Ka jalo, molao o montšha o ne wa theiwa, o o neng o kaya fa Sobukwe a ka golegwa sebaka se se senang bokhutlô ntle le go pegwa ditatofatsô tse dingwe, go fitlhelela a bontsha balaodi gore a ka se tlhole a rotloetsa kemo-kgatlhong le puso ya tlhaolele. O ne o bitswa Robert Sobukwe Clause.

Sobukwe o ne a gana go obamela patikô ka matshosetsi ya mmuso, mme o ne a romelwa kwa Robben Island. Fela le fano o ne a kaiwa fa a le matshosetsi, mme o ne a sa letlelelwa go tshela mo kgolegelong-kgolo. Mo boemông ba seo, o ne a bewa mo ntlong kwa ntlenyana ga motse mme a tsholwa ka go kgaogana le bagolegwa ba bangwe. Dingwaga di le robongwe o tshetse mo ntlong e nnye ya diphaposi di le pedi, ka fa tlase ga tlhokomelo ya ka metlha. O ne a sa letlelelwa go nna le baeng mme o ne a kganetswe go bua le mongwe le mongwe. Tlhaolô ya gagwe e ne e feletse, go begwa fa a latlhegetswe ke bokgoni jwa gagwe jwa go bua go se nene. Kgapetsa, motho yo o diriswang ke puso o ne a ka goroga kwa ntlong mme a rebolele Sobukwe kgololosego ya gagwe fela fa a ka phuaganya kgaratlho.

Sobukwe o ne a gana ka makgetlhô otlhe. Le fa kgetse ya Sobukwe e ne e ikgethile, tshwarô ya bagolegwa ba sepolotiki botlhe mo Robben Island e ne ele setlhogo le bomatla, segolo thata mo dingwageng tsa ntlha pele ga 1965. Bontsi jwa batlhokomedi ba ne ba sa rutega mme ba tlhoile botlhale jwa bangwe ba batshwarwa ba bona. Setlhaketlhake gape se ne sele kgakala le matlho a lefatshe, mme badiri ba kgolegelo ba ne ba iterela sengwe le sengwe ntle le ditlamorago. Ntle le fao, ke se se tshwanelang batshosetsi, makomonisi le dira-tsa-puso. Go bua nnete, fela, go tshwanelwa ke go ka kaiwa gore botshelo jwa motlhokomedi wa kgolegelo mo Robben Island bo ne bo le thata. Ba ne ba dira nako tse di telele, ba na le moaparo o o botlhofo le baokamedi ba ba kgerisang ba ba neng ba phatlhalatsa letlhôô le letshogo go kgabaganya morafe wa basweu.

Mogolegwa yo o Tumileng Thata wa Robben Island: Nelson Mandela

©Eric Miller
Ka 1962, balaodi ba tlhaolele ba tshwere tlhapi e kgolo, motlhankedi yo mo golwane wa ANC yo o bitswang Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela. O tshwerwe fa ane a kgweetsa go ya Howick kwa Natal go kopana le mopresidente wa ANC, Albert Luthuli (Mofenyi wa Nobel-Peace Prize wa ntlha wa Afrika Borwa). Monna yo o batlwang, Mandela o ne a itirile mokgweetsi yo o thapilweng, fela sepodisi se ne se lomilwe tsebe (gongwe ke CIA e e tlhoileng bokomonisi?) mme o ne a tshwarelwa kwa Natal Midlands.

Moragonyana ga fao, sepodisi se ne sa thulana le setlhopha sa mekgankgara ya ANC se se neng se kopane kwa polaseng e e bitswang Liliesleaf, kwa Rivonia, Johannesburg. Botlhe ba ne ba tshwarwa, mmogo le Mandela, ba latofatswa ka boepa-puso, tshenyô, bokomonisi le go loga leano la go diga puso. Bosekisi bo ne ba senka katlholelo-loso fela, ka go tshaba ngôngôrêgô e kgolo ya boditšhabatšhaba, 'Borobedi jwa Rivonia' bo ne ba atlholelwa botshelo jotlhe kwa kgolegelong. Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Achmed Kathrada, Andrew Mlangeni, Elias Motsoaledi, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba ba ne ba romelwa kwa Robben Island. Denis Goldberg o ne a romelwa kwa Pretoria Central. Ka Luthuli yo a neng a le ka fa tlase ga tshwarô ya kwa gae le Oliver Tambo kwa nageng-botshabelo, mmuso o ne o kgonne go didimatsa kemo-kgatlhanong mo dingwageng di le mmalwa tse khutshwane. Le gale, kgaratlho e ne e tlile go tswelela, ka bokhukhuntshwane.

Translated by Nchema Rapoo