Batshwaruwa ba bahale ba sotlehileng Robben Island

Nako tsa pele tsa tjhankane

©Eric Miller
Baetapele ba African National Congress le baemedi ke bona ba pele ba ho tshwarwa. Ka ka morao ha fihla baemedi ba mekgatlo e qothisanang, moo ba ile potwapotwa ka tatellano mme ba pakwa ho iswa Robben Island moo ba neng ba keke ba etsa morusu. Ka hodimo ho dilemo, maloko a PAC, ANC, South West African People’s Organisation (SWAPO), National Liberty Party Front, African People’s Democratic Union of South Africa, non European Unity Movement, Liberal Party, United Democratic Front, Indian Congress, Azania People’s Organisation (AZAPO), baetapele ba Black Consciousness le ba bang ba baetapele ba bangata ba ne ba tshwerwe Robben Island. Tsebahalo ya tjhankane ka lebaka leo e ne e le hole le hae mme dikgohlang dipakeng tsa maqulwana ya nna ya phahama nako le nako, mme kantle ho tikatiko e ne e kgothaletswa ke batshwereng matla tjhankaneng.

Bahale ba hlahelletseng ba batshwaruwa

©Eric Miller
Robben Island e ne e se poloko e ikgethang ya ANC. Jwalo ka ho boletswe hodimo, dikete tsa masole a maoto e ne e le batshwaruwa Robben Island mmoho le mabitso a mang a maholo jwalo ka, John Nyathi Pokela, Johnson Mlambo, Zephania Mothopeng, Andimba Toivo ya Toivo (from SWAPO), Neville Alexander, Billy Nair, Sonny Venkatrathnam, Kader Hassim, Fikile Bam, Eddie Daniels, Mac Maharaj, Harry Gwala le Wilton Mkwayi (a lwantshitseng baetapele batjhankane dilemo tse 25 a batla tumello ya ho nyala moratuwa wa hae Irene). Ka dilemo tsa bo 70 le 80, kabinete le diministara tsa ka moso tse jwalo ka Steve Tshwete, Kgalema Motlanthe, Tokyo Sexwale, Jacob Zuma, Saths Cooper, Mosiuoa ‘Terror’ Lekota, Joe Seremane, Strini Moodley le Ronnie Mamoepa le bona ba ile ba qeta nako ya bona sehlekehlekeng.

Nyewe ya Robert Sobukwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Mohale wa bohlokwa wa motshwaruwa Robben Island e e le Robert Sobukwe, mothei wa PAC. Ya hohelang le ho ba mohanyetsi, Sobukwe e ne e le e mong borapoloti ba pele ba ho ba batshwaruwa ka mora matsatsi a merusu ya Sharpville. O ile a tshwarwa ka pele mme a ahlolwa dilemo tse tharo Pretoria Central. Ka nako eo kahlolo ya hae e fanyehilwe, mmuso o ne o sa batle ho montsha hobane one a nkuwa a le kotsi. Jwale molao o motjha wa qala, mme o ile qala ho sebetsa ho Sobukwe hore a tle a dule ditlamong ka ho sa feleng, kantle ho diqoso tse ding tse kgahlano le yena ho fihlela mmuso o elellwa hore a keke a hlola a batla ho diya mmuso. E ne e le polelo ya Robert Sobukwe.

Sobukwe o ferekantswe ke ditshoso tsa mmuso mme o ile a romellwa Robbern Island. Empa le hona mona o ne a nkuwa ele setshosa mme ha a ka a dumellwa ho dula seleng e kgolo. Ba ile ba mo isa ntlong ya motsana o kantle ho toropo mme a bolokwa hole le batshwaruwa ba bang. O ne a sa dumellwa ho ba le baeti ebile a sa lokela le ho buwa le mang kapa mang. Ho kwallwa a le mong ha hae ho ne felletse, ho ne ho bile hothwe ha a sa tseba ho buwa. Nako le nako, mmuso o ne otla ho yena o batla ho mo fa tokoloho ya hae, empa ka tumellano ya hore ha a tswa a tlohele ntwa kgahlano le mmuso. Empa Sobukwe o ne a hana ka dinako tsohle.

Le ha nyewe ya Sobukwe e ne e sa tlwaeleha, tshwaro ya batshwaruwa ba polotiki Robben Island e ne e le mahlonoko e le e sethoto, haholo dilemong tse qalang pele ho 1965. Boholo ba bahlokomedi ba disele ba ne ba sa ruteha ebile ba ne ba tenwa ke tsebo ya batshwaruwa. Sehlekehleke se ne sele hole le mahlo a lefatshe, mme basebetsi ba tjhankane ba ne ka etsa le ha ekaba ke eng. Ntle le moo, ke seo baferekanyi, makomonisi le dira tsa mmoso ba neng ba se lokela. Ka toka, le ha hole jwalo, re tlameha ho hlalosa hore mosebetsi wa maponesa a tjhankane o ne o le boima. Ba ne ba ena le ditjhifi tse telele, diaparo tsa mosebetsi tse bobebe le beng ba dikgoka ba tlatsang lehloyo le tshabo ka hare ho setjhaba sa makgowa.

Tjhankane etsebahalang haholo Robben Island: Nelson Mandela

©Eric Miller
Ka 1962, batshwereng matla ba nako ya kgethollo ba ile ba itshwasetsa tlhapi e kgolo, moetapele wa ANC a bitswang Nelson Mandela. O ile a tshwarwa a kganna ho ya Howick Natal ho kopana le mopresidente wa ANC, Albert Luthuli (mohlodi wa pele wa Nobel Price). Monna ya batlwang ka hofitisisa, mandela o ne a ikgakantse jwalo ka mokganni, empa maponesa a ile a sebelwa mme a tshwarwa NatalMidlands.

Ha kgutswane ka mora moo maponesa a ile a tshwara ba baholo ba mokgatlo wa ANC ba neng ba kopane polasing e bitswang Liliesleaf, Rivonia Johannesburg. Ba ile ba ba tshwarwa kaofela, mmoho le Mandela, ba ahlolawa thero ya ho phetola, sabotasi, bokomonisi le leano la ho diya mmuso. Motjhotjhisi o ile a kopa kahlolo ya lefu, empa ka ho tshaba sello sa matjhaba, “Revonia Eight” ba ile ba ahlolwa bophelo bohle tjhankaneng. Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Achmed Kathrada, Andrew Mlangeni, Elias Motsoaledi, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba ba ile ba iswa Robben Island. Denis Goldberg oile a iswa Pretoria Central. Robert Sobukwe yena a tshwarelwa ntlong ha Oliver Tambo yena a ile a ya kgolehong, mmuso o ile wa thodisa mekgatlo e qothisang nako ya selemo. Le ha hole jwalo ntwa e ne e ntse e tswela pele sekgukgung.

Translated by Sibongile Sonopo