Mihaga ya Thambulo Musi vha tshi Dzula Khothoni ya Robben Island

Vha u Thoma u Fariwa

©Eric Miller
Vharangaphanḓa vha African National Congress na vha imeleli ndi vhone vha u thoma u fariwa. Hu saathu fhela tshifhinga ha tevhela vha imeleli vha tshinwe tshigwada tsho no lwisana, he vha mbo ḓi tou hwaliwa vha ḓiswa tshiṱangadzimeni hune vha nga si kone u ita zwa dzi khakhathi.

Lwa minwaha, miraḓo ya PAC, ANC, na vhathu vha South West African People’s (SWAPO), vha National Liberation Front, vha African People’s Democratic Union of South Africa, vha non-European Unity Movement, vha Liberal Party, vha United Democratic Front, vha Indian Congress, vha Azanian People’s Organisation (AZAPO), vharangaphanḓa vha Black Consciousness na vhanwe vhanzhi vho vha vha Robben Island.

Hei khotho yo vha yo i kule vhukuma, nahone yo ḓala, bhu tshi dzula huna khakhathi dzine dza vha uri dzo vhangiwa nga zwifhinga na zwifhinga, vhathu vha tshi dzulela ulwa nga tshavho vha zwino vho vha vha tshi vho zwi vhona uri zwi khou bva kha vha hulwane vha khotho.

Mihaga ya dzi Nndwa vho no Ḓivhea vha Farwa vha Dzula Khothoni

©Eric Miller
Robben Island yo vha isa khethulusi vha ANC. Sa zwe zwa ambiwa nnṱha, zwigidi zwa vhathu vha masole a u tshimbila nga, milenzhe vho vha vho fariwa navho tshiṱangadzimeni na manwe madzina mahulwane sa, John Nyathi Pokela, Johnson Mlambo, Zephania Mothopeng, Andimba Toivo ya Toivo (ubva kha SWAPO), Neville Alexander, Billy Nair, Sonny Venkatrathnam, Kader Hassim, Fikile Bam, Eddie Daniels, Mac Maharaj, Harry Gwala and Wilton Mkwayi (we a lwela mulayo a khothoni lwa minwaha ya 25 a tshi khou itela u mala mufunwa wawe Irene). Nga vho 70s na vho 80s, we avha atshi khou ḓo vha minister wa cabinet na murangaphanḓa wa zwa polotiki ane anga Steve Tshwete, Kgalema Motlanthe, Tokyo Sexwale, Jacob Zuma, Saths Cooper, Mosiuoa ‘Terror’ Lekota, Joe Seremane, Strini Moodley na Ronnie Mamoepa na vhone vho fhedza tshifhinga vha tshiṱangadzimeni.

Mulandu wa Robert Sobukwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Mulwi wa ndeme a fariwa na ene Robben Island ndi Robert Sobukwe, muthomi wa PAC. Charismatic and defiant, Sobukwe ovha a munwe wa vha fariwa vha u thoma nga murahu ha dzi khakhathi dza Sharpeville. Vho ṱavhanya vha waniwa mulandu vha gwevhiwa u dzula khothoni lwa minwaha miraru kha khotho ya Pretoria Central. Musi tshigwevho tshavho tsho fhela, naho zwo ralo vha muvhuso avho ngo ṱoḓa uvha bvisa ngauri ho mbo ḓi pfi vha khombo. Ha mbo ḓi ḓa munwe mulayo muswa wa uri vho- Sobukwe vha khou fanela uvha vho sokou dzula hu sina munwe mulandu we vha hwelelwa wone, u swika mapholia vha tshi ḓo kona u zwivhona uri ha tsha ḓo dovha aḓi dzhenisa kha zwa u lwa na muvhuso wa tshiṱalula. Zwo vha zwi tshi vhidzwa upfi, Robert Sobukwe clause.

Sobukwe a hana zwine vha muvhuso vha khou amba zwone zwa ita uri arunwe ayo dzula kha khotho ya Robben Island. Na henefha ho vha hu tshi khou ḓi pfi u khombo hune o vha asa tendelwi u dzula kha khotho khulwane. Zwe vha ita o ya a vhewa nnḓuni nnḓa ha kusi a bviswa kule na vhanwe vhafariwa. Lwa minwaha ya ṱahe atshi khou dzula kha kuḓu kuṱuku atshi khou lindiwa. Hu sa tendelwi vhaeni asa tendelwi u amba na muthu na muthihi. Zwe zwa itwa khae zwo vha zwo fhambana na zwa vhanwe zwi a vhavha ngauri ho swika he avho ḓo vha na vhuthada ha u amba. Vho vha vha tshi dzulela u ḓa khae vha mulayo vha muvhudza uri arali na nga litsha zwa u dzhenelea kha zwa polotiki riṋe ri nga mu fha mbofholowo yawe. Tshifhinga tshoṱhe ovha atshi hana.

Naho huna uri mulandu wa Sobukwe’ wo vha u songo fhambana na wa vhanwe, zwe vhafariwa vho farelwaho zwa polotiki vha itwa nga ngomu Robben Island zwo vha zwi zwa tshiṱuhu na vhuḓahela, nga maanḓa minwaha ya u tou thoma nga vho 1965. Vhunzhi ha vhalindi vha khotho vho vha vha songo funzea vha tshiita vha tshi bva hune vha tea uvha vha hone. Tshiṱangadzime na tshone tsho vha tshi kule na maṱo a ḽifhasi, vhashumi vha khothoni vho vha vha vha tshi kona ubva na tshithu tshinwe na tshinwe tshine vha funa. Na ngauri ndi zwone zwine maravhele na vhathu vhane vha lwa na muvhuwo vha fanela u wana zwone. Arali u tshi nga amba ngoho, naho zworalo u nga amba uri vhutshilo ha vhalindi vha tsireledzo na hone ho vha hu tshi konḓa. Vho vha vha tshi ambara hemmbe dza zwanḓa zwilapfu, uniform yo khwaṱhaho na vhahulwane vhane vha kona u phaḓaladza vengo fhedzi na nyofho kha tshitshavha tshoṱhe tsha vha thu vhatsu.

Fhethu Hune ha Ḓivhea Vhukuma Khothoni ya Robben Island: Nelson Mandela

©Eric Miller
Nga 1962, vhalangi vha muvhuso wa tshiṱalula vho swika he vha fara zwine vha zwi vhidza uri khovhe khulwane, muhulwane wa ANC a no pfi Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela. O fariwa a tshi khou reila Howick kha ḽa Natal atshi khou ya u ṱangana na mupridienthe wa ANC, Albert Luthuli (muthu wa u thoma wa Afrika Tshipembe wa u pfufhiwa nga South Nobel-Peace Prize). Munna ane akhou ṱoḓiwa, Mandela o vha o ḓinalea sa mureili, fhedzi mapholisa ho vha huna muthu we avha o vha tswela (khanwe nga vhanwe vhane vha vhenga CIA) vha fariwa vha Natal Midlands.

Nga murahu ha hetsho tshifhinga, mapholisa vha wana tshigwada tsha vhathu vha ANC vhe vha vha vha tshiṱangana bulasini ine ya vhidzwa upfi Liliesleaf, kha ḽa Rivonia, Johannesburg. Vhoṱhe vho mbo ḓi fariwa, na vho- Mandela vha gwevhiwa nga treason, u fheta, communism na u rea zwikwekwe vha tshi khou itelan u wisa muvhuso. Mutshutshusi ovha o humbula uvha gwevha nga u tou vha vhulaha, nga nyofho fhedzi nga nyofho dza tshililo tsha vhathu vhane vhavha mashangoḓavha ngauri vha ‘Rivonia Eight’ vho vha vbo gwevhiwa u dzula khothoni lwa vhutshilo havho hoṱhe.

Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Achmed Kathrada, Andrew Mlangeni, Elias Motsoaledi, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba vha iswa Robben Island. Denis Goldberg a iswa khothoni ya Pretoria Central. Ngeno vho Luthuli vho gwevhiwa u dzula vhanḓuni na Oliver Tambo we avha a vhuthubwani, vha muvhuso vho vha vho kona u fhumudza vhalwi navho lwa minwaha miṱuku. Naho zwo ralo u tambula hu kha ḓi ya phanḓa, vha sa zwi vhoni.

Translated by Khalirendwe Nekhavhambe