Ntirho wa Afrika Dzonga leyi tshunxekeke

Ku tekiwa hi tipolotiki

©Eric Miller
Albertina Sisulu angari eka timhaka ta tipolotiki kufikela a hlangana na Walter hi 1941.
Na hinkarhi walowo, a nghenela tinhlengeletano ntsena tani hiku n’wiseketela. Loko se vatekanile, khale ka president Nelson Mandela un’wibyele leswaku, “Albertina, u tekiwe hi wanuna loyi anga teka:
Walter u tekile tipolotiki loko anga se hlangana na wena.” Endzhaku ka loko se vatekanile, Albertina u sungula ku hoxa xandla swinene eka tipolotiki.
U sungule kuva xirho xa African National Congress (ANC) Women’s League xikan’we nakuva xiphemu xaku simekiwa ka Freedom Charter hirona lembe rero.
Hi lembe ra 1954 uve xirho xa vurhangeri eka nhlangano wa Federation of South African Women (FEDSAW), ava murhangeri warona e Transvaal hi lembe ra 1963 kutani a hetelela ava President wa nhlangano lowu etikweni hinkwaro.
Muti waka Sisulu wu hundzuke ndzhawu yale xikarhi ya tinhlengeletano leti tinga vumba vandla ra ANC.

Malembe ya nhlupheko

1952 yitise Defiance Campaign, matimba ya nhlanganelo ya vandla ra ANC, South African Indian Congress na South African Communist Party. Mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu wu hlamurile eka leswi hiku nghenisa Suppression of Communism Act, leswi swinga endla leswaku ku khomiwa vanhu voringana 20 kukatsa na nuna wa Albertina, Walter.
Endzhaku ka malembe nyana Walter uvuye a khomiwa minkarhi yohlaya naswona leswi swisiye Albertina akarhi a hlupheka swinene kukatsa na ku xanisiwa hi maphorisa eka kuva ari xirho xa ANC Women’s League na FEDSAW. Uvule leswi landzelaka hinkarhi wa ku khomiwa ka Walter:
“Eka malembe lawa hinkwawo andzi se va na vutomi byo antswa. Hikuva kusukela hi lembe ra 1958 loko ndziri e khotsweni, walawo akuri masungulo ya vutomi byamina byaku huma no nghena e jele. Fifty-eight andziri jele, sixty-three andziri jele na mativula ya mina ya jaha loyi ari na khume nkombo wa malembe. Ahi khomiwile hikokwalaho ka Suppression of Communism Act, leswi aswivula leswaku hifanele ku tshama e khotsweni kuringana masiku ya makume nkaye unga tengisiwangi. Se hivuye hi pfaleriwa e khotsweni,kutani hiya tshama masiku ya makume nkaye kutani hi ntshunxiwa, kutani endzhaku kasweswo ahi xanisiwa hi maphorisa. Se andzi twa onge u fanele kuva a rhurha laha tikweni. Kutani a baleka laha tikweni kuya e vuchavela whawha hi lembe ra sixty-three. Sixty-four, endzhaku kaloko kutava ku gweviwe [Walter] kutshama e khotsweni vutomi bya yena hinkwabyo, Andzi yirisiwile kuringana ntlhanu wa malembe. Kuyirisiwa loku a swivula leswaku andzi nga fanelangi kuya eka tinhlengeletano. Andzi nga fanelanga kuya ekusuhi na tindzhawu ta tidyondzo. Andzi nga fanelangi kuya ekusuhi na ti khoto. Kambe endzhaku ka ntlhanu wa malembe ndzi nyikiwa xin’wana xigwevo xaku tshama endlwini `house arrest. Lexi a xitika hakunene. Sweswi ndzi sele ndzexe naswona nuna ule khotsweni.”

Ku kombisa ku vilela eka milawu leyinga lulamangiki

Hambi leswi Albertina anga sungula kuva eka tipoloyiki hikokwalaho ka nuna wa yena, uyile emahlweni kutirhela ntshuxeko wa tiko ra Afrika Dzonga hinkarhi lowu ahari e khotsweni. Hi 1953 mfumo wu tise Bantu Education Act. Leswi aswivula leswaku kuva na dyondzo yoka yingari kahle ya vana va vantima va Afrika Dzonga. Albertina Sisulu na swirho swin’wana swa vandla ra ANC Women’s League na FEDSAW avanga tsakisiwangi hi mhaka leyi nakan’we.
Va kunguhate kukombisa kuvilela laha vangaya e Union Buildings kuya lwisana na nawu lowu. Hiku kombisa kuvilela eka Bantu Education, vavuye va humesa vana vavona e swikolweni swamfumo swale kusuhi kutani vapfula tinyangwa ta makaya ya vona kuva kona laha vana vadyondziseriwaka kona laha ava tshemba leswaku vatava nyika dyondzo yo antswa.
Matshalatshala lawa aya humelelangi. Hi lembe ra 1976 machudeni lawa aya langutane na Bantu Education vakombise kuvilela leswi swinga hetelela swiri na madzolonga. Mapfhumba lawa ya koke rinoko ra magidi gidi ya vantshwa va Umkhonto we Sizwe (rhavi ra matlhari ra vandla ra ANC) naswona Albertina uva lulamisile leswaku vaya leteriwa etinkambeni ta vusocha e matikweni yale handle.
Hiti 9 August 1956 Albertina Sisulu kukatsa na 20 000 wa vavasati van’wani va valweri vantshunxeko kufana na Helen Joseph na Sophia Williams-De Bruyn eka machi yoya e Union Buildings e Pretoria laha aku lwisiwa milawu ya mapasi. Yena ari nese hinkarhi walowo naswona nawu awuvula leswaku loko otlhela a gweviwa nakambe hi khoto uta fanele ku yirisiwa kuva nese.
Leswi aswin’wi chavisangi na kan’we hambi leswi akuri yena loyi a hlayisa muti naswona loko a lahlekeriwa hi ntirho aswita vula leswaku angaha ta kota ku hlayisa muti.
Yena na vanwana va 2 000 wa vakombisa kuvilela vakhomiwile siku rero naswona vatshamile mavhiki yanharhu ekhotsweni loko vanga swinga se fika laha vanga voniwangiki nandzu kutani vatshunxiwa vatifambela.
Nelson Mandela ari muyimeri wa vona wa swa nawu. Albertina anga susiwangi eka ntirho wayena wavu nese naswona ataya emahlweni a hlayisa ndyangu wa yena. Namuntlha, 9 August yitlangeriwa tani hi Women’s Day e South Africa.

Ku xanisiwa hi maphorisa

Albertina uvuye a khomiwa nakambe hi lembe ra 1963 endzhaku kaloko varhangeri va tiko vanga koti kukuma nuna wa yena Walter endzhaku kaloko atava ayile evuchavela whawha loko a humile e khotsweni hi bail loko aha yimele xigwevo xakwe xa ntsevu wa malembe yotshama e khotsweni. Leswi swin’wi endle wansati wosungula kuva a pfaleriwa kuya hi nawu wa General Law Amendment Act.
Usungule hiku vekiwa ari yexe kuringana tinhweti timbirhi, laha anga vekiwa e hansi ka swipimelo swotshama endlwini vusiku na nhlekani xikan’we na kuyirisiwa. Walter u khomiwile a pfaleriwa hinkarhi lowu nsati wa yena ari e khotsweni a pfaleriwe ari yexe naswona u gweviwile kuya tshama e khotsweni kuringana vutomi bya yena hinkwabyo hikokwalaho ko kunguhata ku lwisa mfumo kutani aya pfaleriwa e khotsweni ra Robben Island.
Endzhaku kaloko mfumo wu khotsile Albertina hikutiyimisela xikan’we na migingiriko yayena ya tipolotiki leyinga endla leswaku a tshama arikarhi a nghena no huma e khotsweni xikan’we na ku yirisiwa kotala. Kuyirisiwa loku aku vula leswaku anga fanelanga kuya eka tinhlengeletano kumbe ku huma eka ndzhawu yaka vona. Albertina u hlamuserile hilaha anga xanisiwa hakona hi maphorisa:
“Maphorisa avata gongondza enyangweni hi matakuxa, kwalomuya kavo one o`clock. Minkarhi yinwana ahinga switivi leswaku hikokwalaho kayini vata endlwini. Avata hibyela leswaku kova kukamba ntsena akuna nchumu, kuriku volava kuhi xanisa. Waswitiva loko va gongondza vagongondza enyangweni nale ka mafasitere hinkwawo. Loko u pfula nyangwa, uta kuma yindlu yirhandzeriwile hi maphorisa valava leswaku u pfula nyangwa. Sweswo iku xanisiwa.”
Vana vaka Sisulu navona avanga salangi e handle eka migingiriko ya tipolotiki. Nkuli, n’wana lontsongo, a khomiwile hinkarhi wa mikitsikitsi yale Soweto ya machudeni naswona u pfaleriwile naku biwa hi maphorisa. Lindiwe, nwana lonkulu, a khomiwile nayena naswona a pfaleriwile e John Vorster square kua ave xiphemu xa Black Consciousness Movement (BCM).
Nwana wa vona wa jaha, Zwelakhe, a vekiwe e hansi ka swipimelo swo yirisiwa leswi swinga kavanyeta ntirho wakwe tani hi muteki wa mahungu. Leswi switise ntshikelelo swinene eka manana Albertina loyi anga tshikeleleka swinene loko a vona kutikeriwa ka vana vakwe.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni