U-Albertina Sisulu - Umsebenzi weNingizimu Afrika Ekhululiwe

Washada Nezepolitiki

©Eric Miller
U-Albertina Sisulu akazange ahlanganyele ezombusazwe kwaze kwaba ahlangane noWalter ngo-1941. Ngisho noma kunjalo, wayeya emihlanganweni kuphela njengesisekelo kuye.

Lapho beshadile, owayengumongameli uNelson Mandela wathi kuye, "Albertina, usushade umyeni oshadile: UWalter washada nezombusazwe ngaphambi kokuhlangana nawe."

Ngemva kokushada, waba nomthelela omkhulu kwezombangazwe. Ujoyine iqembu labesifazane le-African National Congress (ANC) futhi wabamba iqhaza ekuqalisweni kwe-Freedom Charter ngonyaka ofanayo.

Ngomnyaka ka-1954 waba yilungu eliphezulu le-Federation of South AfricaN Women (FEDSAW), waba nguMongameli walo weTransvaal ngo-1963 futhi ekugcineni waba nguMongameli walo wezwe.

Ikhaya lakwaSisulu laba indawo yokuhlanganelana ndawonye okwabumba i-ANC.

Iminyaka Yobunzima

U-1952 waletha umkhankaso wobujaka (Defiance Campaign), umzamo wokubambisana we-ANC, i-South African Indian Congress kanye neSouth African Communist Party. Uhulumeni wobandlululo uphendule lokhu ngokususwa koMthetho wobuKhomanisi, okwabona ukuboshwa kwabantu abangamashumi amabili kuhlanganise nomyeni ka-Albertina, uWalter.

Eminyakeni embalwa eyalandela uWalter waboshwa izikhathi eziningi kanti u-Albertina washiywa ebhekana nobunzima ngenkathi ehlushwa amaphoyisa ngokubandakanyeka kwakhe neqembu labesifazane le-ANC ne FEDSAW. Washo okulandelayo ngesikhathi u-Walter eboshiwe:

"Yonke le minyaka kaze ngiyithole, uyazi, impilo ekhululekile. Ngoba kusukela ngo-1958 lapho ngisetilongweni, lokho kwakungukuqala kokuphila kwami ​​ngaphakathi naphandle ejele. Ngo 1958 ngisejele, ngo 1963 ngisejele nendodana yami yokuqala eyayineminyaka eyishumi nesikhombisa. Sasiboshwa ngenxa yoKususwa koMthetho wamaKhomanisi, okwakusho izinsuku ezingamashumi ayisishiyagalolunye ngaphandle kokuthethwa kwecala. Ngakho saya ejele, futhi lapho sigcwalisa izinsuku ezingamashumi ayisishiyagalolunye sakhululwa, futhi ngemva kwalokho wahlukunyezwa ngamaphoyisa. Ngakho ngangizwa sengathi kufanele ahambe kuleli zwe. Ngakho weqa izwe ngo-1963. Ngo-1964, ngemva kwesigwebo sikaWalter, ngavinjelwa iminyaka emihlanu. Lelo daba lokuvinjelwa lisho ukuthi mina (angeke) ngiye emihlanganweni. Ngangingasondeli izikhungo zemfundo, (angikwazi) ukusondela ezinkantolo. Kodwa emva kweminyaka emihlanu nganikwa enye eyishumi yokuhlala endlini ngingavumelekile kuphuma. Lokho kwakubi kakhulu. Manje ngingedwa futhi lo muntu usejele."

Ukuphikisa Imithetho Engalungile

Nakuba u-Albertina ehileleke kwezombusazwe ngenxa yomyeni wakhe, waqhubeka nomsebenzi wakhe wokukhulula i-Ningizimu Afrika ngenkathi esejele.

Ngo-1953 uhulumeni wasungula uMthetho we-Bantu Education Act. Lokhu kwakusho imfundo ephansi kakhulu kwabantwana abamnyama baseNingizimu Afrika. U-Albertina Sisulu namanye amalungu eqembu labesifazane le-ANC ne-FEDSAW abazange bajabule ngalokhu. Bahlela umbhikisho kwiZakhiwo zombuso ngokumelene nesenzo.

Ekuphikiseni i-Bantu Education, baphinde baxosha izingane zabo ezikoleni zendawo zikahulumeni futhi bavula amakhaya abo njengesinye isikole lapho befuna ukunikeza izingane imfundo efanele. Le mizamo yayingaphumelelanga kakhulu. Ngo-1976 abafundi bezikole ezahamba phambili ne Bantu Education babenomvuthwandaba ophenduke udlame. Lo mcimbi uqoqe izinkulungwane zabantu abasha beMkhonto weSizwe (iphiko lezempi le-ANC) no-Albertina bahlela ukuba bajoyine amaqembu okuqeqesha emazweni angomakhelwane.

Ngomhlaka-9 Ncwaba 1956 u-Albertina Sisulu wajoyina ezinye izinkulungwane ezingamashumi amabili zabesifazane abalwela inkululeko njengoHelen Joseph noSophia Williams-De Bruyn bencungelisa belubhekise e-Union Buildings YasePitoli benqaba umthetho wamapasi. Wayengumhlengikazi ngaleso sikhathi kanti umthetho wathi uma eke egwetshwe yinkantolo, uzobe eyolahlekelwa umsebenzi. Lokhu akuzange kumvimbele, noma ukulahlekelwa umsebenzi wakhe kwakungasho ukuthi ngeke akwazi ukusekela umndeni wakhe.

Yena nabanye ababhikishi abayizinkulungwane ezimbili baboshwa ngalolo suku bachitha amasonto amathathu ejele ngaphambi kokutholakala bengenacala futhi bekhululiwe. UNelson Mandela wayengummeli wabo. U-Albertina akazange akhishwe emsebenzini futhi uqhubeke nokunakekela umndeni wakhe. Namuhla, 9 Ncwaba sigubha njengoSuku lwabesifazane eNingizimu Afrika.

Ukuhlukunyezwa Ngamaphoyisa

U-Albertina uphinde waboshwa ngo-1963 lapho iziphathimandla zaseNingizimu Afrika zingenakuthola umyeni wakhe uWalter ngemuva kokuzifihla kwakhe ekhishwa ngebheyili elinde isigwebo seminyaka eyisithupha.

Lokhu kwamenza waba ngowesifazane wokuqala ukuboshwa ngaphansi koMthetho Kazwelonke. Okokuqala wavalelwe yedwa kwaphela izinyanga ezimbili, wabe esevalelwe endlini yakhe kusihlwa kuze kube sekuseni. UWalter waboshwa ngesikhathi evalelwe yedwa futhi wagetshwa ukuhlala ejele impilo yakhe yonke ngokuhlela amacala okubhidliza ngamabomu futhi wathumelwa eRobben Island.

Emva kwalokhu uhulumeni washushisa u-Albertina ngokungapheli futhi imisebenzi yakhe yezombangazwe yaholela ekungeneni kwakhe nasejele futhi ehambisana nemigomo eminingi yokuvinjelwa. Umyalelo wokuvinjelwa wawusho ukuthi akakwazi ukuya emihlanganweni noma ashiye isifunda. U-Albertina wachaza ukuthi kwakunjani ukushushiswa ngamaphoyisa:

"Amaphoyisa angqongqoza ngezikhathi ezingasile, njengehora lokuqala ekuseni. Ngezinye izikhathi sasingazi nokuthi kungani bekhona lapho. Bakutshele ukuthi kwakujwayelekile ukuhlola,kodwa iqiniso; ukukuhlukumeza. Uyazi, lapho beqongqoza esicabheni kanye nawo wonke amafasitela. Uma uvula isicabha, indlu ihaqwe ngamaphoyisa, befuna ukuba uvule. Ukuhlukunyezwa."

Izingane zaSisulu zazingavikelekile emisebenzini yezombangazwe. U-Nkuli, ingane encane kunabo bonke, ubanjwe ebhikisha nabafundi eSoweto futhi waboshwa ngamaphoyisa. ULindiwe, indodakazi endala, uboshwe wahanjiswa ejele eJohn Vorster ngokubandakanyeka ku-Black Consciousness Movement (BCM). Indodana yabo, uZwelakhe, ibekwe ngaphansi komyalelo wokuvinjelwa owawuthinta kabi umsebenzi wakhe njengomlobi wezindaba. Lokhu kwabeka u-Albertina uvalo lapho ephoqelelwe ukuba abukele ubunzima obhekwe izingane zakhe.

Ukuqala Kabusha Kwezombusazwe

Ngo-1981 umyalelo wokuvinjelwa kuka-Albertina waphakanyiswa futhi awubuyisiwe. Wayevinjelwe iminyaka eyishumi nesishiyagalombili, ukuvinjelwa okude kunakho konke ukuvinjelwe eNingizimu Afrika kuze kube yileso sikhathi. Njengoba kususiwe ukuvinjelwa, uqhubeke nomsebenzi wakhe ne FEDSAW futhi njengo mongameli we-United Democratic Front (UDF).

Kodwa ngo-1983 waphinde waboshwa ngokugqugquzela i-ANC emngcwabeni womngane wakhe, echitha izinyanga eziyisikhombisa eboshwe yedwa ngaphambi kokuba ahlolwe. Wathola isigwebo seminyaka emine, kodwa wakhululwa esalinde isikhalazo. Ngemva kweminyaka emibili waphinde waboshwa futhi wabekwa icala lokuvukela umbuso. Ngalesi sikhathi wakhululwa ngemuva kwemibhikisho emikhulu kanye nokushintsha kombono wamazwe ngamazwe ngokumelene nobandlululo.

Ngo-1989 umyeni wakhe, uWalter wakhululwa etilongweni. Ngawo lowo nyaka i-ANC nayo yayingasavinjelwe futhi u-Albertina noWalter basebenza kanzima ukuqala kabusha kwezombusazwe.

UWalter wakhethwa iphini likamongameli we-ANC no-Albertina wakhethwa iphini likaMongameli weqembu labesifazane le-ANC. Waya ukuyohlangabezana nabomongameli baseMelika u-George W Bush no-Jimmy Carter noNgqongqoshe wezwe wase-UK uMargaret Thatcher, echaza izimo ezinzima ezibhekene nabamnyama baseNingizimu Afrika futhi zibagqugquzela ukuba balondoloze izibopho ngokumelene noMbuso Wezobuhlanga.

Translated by Nsika Khoza