uAlbertina Sisulu - Ukusebenzela uMzantsi Afrika okhululekileyo

uKutshatela kwezo Politiko

©Eric Miller
uAlbertina Sisulu akazange wazibandakanya nezo politiko de wadibana noWalter ngonyaka ka 1941. Nangoko wanyengena imihlangano, exhasa uWalter.

Ukutshata kwabo, lowo wayesakuba ngu Mongameli weli wathi kuye “Albertina, utshate nendoda etshatileyo: uWalter watshata nezopolitiko phambi kokuba adibane nawe.” Emveni kokuba betshatile, uAlbertina wazibandakanya kakhulu kwezo politiko.

Wazibandakanya neqela I African National Congress (ANC) Women’s League wathabatha inxaxheba ku mvulo we Freedom Charter kwango nyaka omnye.

Ngonyaka ka 1954 waba lilungu eliphambili le Federation of South African Women (FEDSAW), wabangu Mongameli wayo kwisebe elise Transvaal ngonyaka ka 1963 ekuhambeni kwexesha wabangu Mongameli wayo iFEDSAW kwilizwe jikelele.

Umzi wakwa Sisulu wabayi ndawo yokundibanela iingxoxo zeopolitiko, kwindibawo ezazijongene noku bumba umbutho we ANC.

Iminyaka yobu nzima

Unyaka 1952 waza nomkhankaso woku Chasana (Defiance Campaign), intsebenziswano Phakathi kwe ANC, iSouth African Indian Congress kunye ne South African Communist Party. Urhulumente wobandlululo waphendula ngomthetho we Suppresion of Communism Act, eyenza okokuba amashumi amabini wabantu kuquka umyeni ka Albertina Sisulu, uWalter bavalelwe entolongweni.

Kwiminyaka embalwa eyalandelayo uWalter wabanjwa amatyeli amaninzi, kwaye uAlbertina washiyeka wasokola kunzima ehlukunyezwa ngama polisa ngokuzibandakanya kwakhe ne ANC Women’s League kunye ne FEDSAW. Wathetha oku kulandelayo ngexesha lokubanjwa kuka Walter:

“Kuyo yonke leminyaka andizange ndibenabo ubomi obuntofo-ntofo. Ukususela ngonyaka ka 1958 ngexesha ndiseluvale lweni, yaba kukuqala kobomi bam ngaphakathi nangaphandle ejele. Kwiminyaka engama (58) ndandise luvalelweni, kwiminyaka engama (63) ndandise luvalelweni nonyana wam wokuqala owayeneminyaka elishumi nesixhenxe (17). Sasibanjwe ngenxa yomthetho we Suppresion of Communism Act, owawuthetha iintsuku esingamashumi alithoba (90) ngaphandle kokuvela enkundleni. Saya ke eluvalelweni, sakugqiba ezintsuku zingama (90) sakhululwa, emveni koko waye hlukumezwa ngama polisa. Ndagqiba okokuba maka hambe eMzantsi Afrika. Wahamba ke kweli ngonyaka ongamashumi amathandathu anesithathu (1963). Kunyaka wamashumi amathandathu nesine (1964), emveni kokugwetywa kuka (Walter) egwetywa isigwebo sobomi ejele, ndanikwa isibheno seminyaka emihlanu. Esisibheno sasithetha okokuba (andikwazi) ukuhamba iintlanganiso. (Ndingavumelekanga) ukusondela kumaziko emfundo (ndingakwazi) ukusondela ezinkundleni zamatyala. Kodwa emveni kweminyaka emihlanu ndaphinda ndafakwa phantsi kovalelo lwendlu iminyaka elishumi. Leyo ke yayi yeyona nzima. Ngelixesha ndandindedwa indoda isejele.”

Ukuhlukunyezwa ngama Polisa

uAlbertina waphinda wavalelwa kwakhona ngonyaka ka 1963 xa iziphatha mandla zalapha eMzantsi Afrika zazingamazi apho akhoyo umyeni wakhe uWalter emveni kokuba wayengene phantsi komhlaba emveni kokukhutshwa ngengqawuse (bail) kodwa inesigwebo seminyaka emithandathu.

Oku kwamenza umfazi wokuqala ukuvalelwa phantsi komthetho we General Law Amendment Act. Waqala wakuvalelo lwabucala iinyanga ezimbini, waphinda wabekwa apho kutshona khona ilanga de kwasa eseluvalelweni lwase ndlini kwaye wafumana isibheno. uWalter wabanjwa ngexesha uAlbertina aseluvalelweni labucala waye ke wanikwa isigwebo sobomi eluvalelweni ngenxa yokuqulunqa izenzo zokungcatsha ze wathunyelwa kwisiqithi iRobben Island.

Emveni koko urhulumente wamtshutshisa uAlbertina engayeki, ukuzibandakanya kwakhe kwezopolitiko kwamenza aphume engena entolongweni, kwaye enikwa imithetho yezibheno emininzi. Umthetho sibheno wawuthetha okokuba akakwazi ukungena imihlangano okanye ashiye isiphaluka akuso. uAlbertina uyabalisa kwakunjani ukuhlukunyezwa ngama polisa:

“Amapolisa aye nkqonkqoza nge yure zange ntseni, ngentsimbi yokuqala kusasa. Ngamanye amaxesha sasingayazi nokuba bafuna ntoni. Babe vele bathi lugqogqo oluqhelekileyo, nje okokuba bakuhlukumeze. Xa benqonqoza, banqonqoza emnyango nakuzo zonke iifestile. Xa uvula ucango, indlu ingqungwe ngamapolisa, benyanzelisa okoba uvule. Kukuhlukumeza ke oko.”

Abantwana baka Sisulu babengazikhuphanga kwizenzo zopolitiko. uNkuli, oyena mntwana mncinci, wabandakanyeka kuvukelwano lwabafundi lase Soweto ze wavalelwa wabethwa ngamapolisa. uLindiwe, intombi endala, wasiwa eluvalelweni wavalelwa kwiziko lokuvalelwa okwethutyana eJohn Voorster square ngenxa yokuba wayeyi nxalenye yombutho iBlack Conscious Movement (BCM). Unyana wabo, uZwelakhe wafakwa phantsi komthetho wesibheno esathi saphazamisa Ikamva lakhe njenge Ntatheli. Oku kwakunzima kakhulu ku Albertina owayehlala exhalabile kwaye kunzima xa enyanzeliswa okokuba ajonge ubunzima babantwana bakhe.

Ukusekwa kwakhona kwezo Politiko

Ngonyaka ka 1981 umyalelo wesibheno sika Albertina saphakanyiswa kwaye asizange sibuyiselwe. Wayephantsi kwesibheno ixesha elingange minyaka elishumi nesibhozo (18), akekho ke omnye owathi wabaphantsi kwesibheno eside kangaka kweli lo Mzantsi Afrika ngelaxesha. Ukuphakanyiswa kwesi bheno, waqhubeka nomsebenzi wakhe we FEDSAW nanje ngo Mongameli oncedisayo we United Democratic Front (UDF).

Kodwa, ngo nyaka ka 1983 wavalelwa kwakhona ngenxa yoku papasha umbutho we ANC kumngcwabo womhlobo wakhe, wachitha iinyanga ezisibhozo eluvalelweni lwakhe yedwa phambi kokuba atshutshiswe.

Wafumana isigwebo seminyaka emine kodwa wakhutshwa, enesicelo sokuba lijongisiswe ityala. Kwiminyaka emibini emveni koko waphinda wabanjwa wabekwa ityala lokungcatsha umbuso. Kweli tyeli wakhululwa emveni kwe nginginya yaba qhanqalazi neentetho zamazwe angaphandle zigxeka ucalucalulo.

Ngonyaka ka 1989 umyeni wakhe, uWalter Sisulu waphuma entolongweni. Kwangalonyaka umnye saphakanyiswa isibeno kumbutho we ANC ze uAlbertina no Walter basebenza inzima ukuziseka kwakhona kwezopolitiko.

uWalter wonyulwa njengo sekela Mongameli wombutho we ANC, ze uAlbertina wonyulwa njengo sekela Mongameli wombutho wama nina we ANC, i-ANC Women’s League.

Wathabatha uhambo wayokudibana nalowo wayesakuba ngu Mongameli wase Melika uGeorge W Bush no Jimmy Carter, ne Prime MINISTER yase UK uMargaret Thatcher, ebalisa kabanzi ngeemeko ezinzima abantu abamnyama abajongene nazo kweli lomzantsi Afrika ebakhuthaza okokuba baqhubeke bewuchasa urhulumente wobandlulo.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie