U-Albertina Sisulu - Sebenzela iSewula Africa Etjhaphulukileko

Wende Epolotikini

©Eric Miller
U-Albertina Sisulu gade angakazimbandakanyi eendabeni zepolotiki kwaze kwaba ngeskhathi lapha ahlangana khona no Walter ngonyaka ka-1941. Ngitjho nangeskhatheso, gade aya emihlangweni yayo ukuyomsekela kwaphela.

Lokha nabatjhadako, uMongameli wakade uNelson Mandela watjela wathi, “Albertina, utjhade nendoda etjhadileko: U-Walter watjhada nepolotiki ngaphambi kokobana ahlangane nawe.”

Ngemva kokobana batjhade naye wangenela iindaba zepolotiki. Wajoyina ihlangano ye-African National Congress (ANC) Women’s League kwathi nakutlanywa i-Freedom Charter ngawo unyaka loyo waba yilunga layo nayo.

Ngonyaka ka-1954 waba lilunga eliphezulu le-Federation of South African Women (FEDSAW), waba nguMongameli wabo eTransvaal ngonyaka ka-1963 ngemva kwalokho waba nguMongameli wayo.

Umuzi wakwaSisulu gade kuhlanganyelwa kiwo lokha kwenziwa imhlangano ye-ANC.

Iminyaka Yobudisi

Unyaka ka-1952 weza nekhampeyini yokungalaleli, ebakwenza ngokuhlanganyela kwehlangano ye-ANC,amandiya weSewula Africa kanye ne-South African Communist Party.Urhulumende webandlululo wayiphendula ngokwenza umthetho we-Suppression of Communism Act, lapha abopha khona abantu abayi-20 ekubalwa hlangana nabo indoda ka-Albertina uWalter.

Eminyakeni elandela leyo uWalter wabotjhwa amahlandla amanengi kanye begodu lokho kwenza bona u-Albertina asale atlhagiswa mapholisa ngebanga lokuzibandakanya kwakhe nehlangano ye- ANC Women’s League kanye neye- FEDSAW. Watjho lokha nakabotjhwako:

“Yoke iminyaka le, akhange khengibe nepilo emnandi. Ngombana kusukela ngonyaka ka-1958 lokha ngisejele kwakukuthoma kwepilo yami ngiphuma ngingena ejele. Ngihlezi iminyaka. Ngonyaka ka-58 gade ngise jele, ngonyaka ka-1963 nalayo gade ngisejele, nendodana yami elizibulo egade ineminyaka elisumi nekhomba. Sabotjhwa ngebanga lokobana lomthetho i- Suppression of Communism Act, egade kutjho bona ubotjhwa iinyanga ezilithoba ngaphandle kokugwetjwa. Njeke saya ejele, njeke nakuphela iinyanga ezilithoba sakhitjhwa, kodwana amapholisa athoma ukusitlhorisa. Njeke ngathatha isiqunto sokobana sifuduke enarheni le, njeke ngonyaka ka-1963, newaka-1964, wakhamba ngemva kokobana uWalter agwetjwe isigwebo sentambo, lapha ngavalwa khona umlomo iminyaka emihlanu. Ekhabe kutlhadlhula bona akukafaneli bona ngikhambe imihlangano. Begodu bekungakafaneli bona ngiye eduze kwenkolo, kanye namakhotho. Kodwana ngemva kweminyaka emihlanu ngaphiwa eminye iminyaka emihlanu. Kodwana ngabotjhelwa ngendlini iminyaka elisumi. Lokho kwababuhlungu khulu. Kwanjesi gade sele ngisele ngingedwa indodami isejele.”

Ukutjhagalela Imithetho Ebandlululako

Nanyana uAlbertina azibandakanya kwezepolotiki ngebanga lakababakwakhe, waragela phambili ngomberegwakwe wokobana sithole iSewula Africa etjhaphulukileko lokha asejele.

Ngonyaka ka-1953 urhulumende watlama umthetho we-Bantu Education. Egade kutjho bona abentwana babantu abanzima bazokuthola ifundo yezinga eliphasi. U-Albertina Sisulu kanye namanye amalunga we-ANC Women’s League kanye ne-FEDSAW akhange bayithande into leyo nakancani. Bahlela umtjhagalo wokuya e-Union Buildings ogade uphikisana nomthetho lowo. Lokha nabatjhagalela i-Bantu Education bakhipha abentwababo eenkolweni zangekhabo bavula imizi yabo bayenza iinkolo, lapha gade bathemba bona bazokupha abentwababo ifundo yeqiniso.

Isenzo sabeso khange siphumelele. Ngonyaka ka-1976 abentwana ekhabe bafundiswa i-Bantu education babamba umtjhagalo owaphenduka intrurhu.Umtjhagalo lo wajoyinwa bantwana abamakhulukhulu behlangano yoMkhonto we Sizwe (ogade uliphiko lesjoni lehlangano ye- ANC) kanye no- Abertina abahlela ukobana abentwanabo bajoyine amakampa wokuzilolonga eenarheni ezibomakhelwane.

Ngezi-9 zakaRhoboyi u-Albertina Sisulu wajoyina abanye abafazi abayi-20 000 agade balwela itjhaphuluko abafana no-Helen Joseph kanye no- Sophia Williams –De Bruyn ngoNtaka e-Union Buildings ePitori bayokutjhagalela imithetho yamapasa. Gade angumhlengikazi ngeskhatheso begodu umthetho wawuthi nange abotjhwa yikhotho uzokususwa ekubeni mhlengikazi.Lokho khange kwenza bona alise, nanyana kukade kunguye okhabe ondla umndenakhe begodu ukuphelelwa msebenzi gade kuzokutjho bona ngeze asarhona ukutlhogomela umndenakhe.

Yena nabanye abomma egade batjhagala babotjhwa ngelangelo bahlala iimveke ezintathu ejele ngaphambi kokobana atholwe anganamlandu bamtjhaphulule. UNelson Mandela gade aligcwetha labo. U-Albertina akhange bamsuse kobana abemhlengikazi begodu waragela phambili watlhogomela umndenakhe. Namhlanje, ilanga lezi -9 zakaRhoboyi ligidingwa njengelanga labafazi /-Women‘s Day eSewula Africa.

Ukutlhoriswa Mapholisa

U-Albertina wabotjhwa godu ngonyaka ka-1963 lokha bezomthetho walokha beSewula Africa babhalelwa kuthola ubabakwakhe uWalter ngemva kokobana ayokubhaqa. Ngemva kwalokho bamtjhaphulula ngebheyili lokha abotjhwe iminyaka esithandathu. Lokhu kwamenza bona abe ngumma wokuthoma owabotjhwa ngaphasi komthetho i- Amendment Act. Kokuthoma wabotjhwa wavalelwa yedwa iinyanga ezimbili, ngemva kwalokho wabotjhwa ubusuku nemini agwetjelwe emzinakhe wadingiswa. UWalter wabotjhwa lokha avalelwe yedwa u-Albertina lapho agwetjwa ipilo yakhe yoke ejele ngendima ayidlalako yokuhlela amano wokuketula umbuso wathunyelwa e-Robben Island.

Ngemva kokobana urhulumene agwebe u-Albertina ngebanga lokuzibandakanya kwakhe kwezepolotiki okwenza bona angene aphuma ejele nokobana adingiswe kanengi. Umthetho ogade udingisa abantu lo, khabe utjho bona angeze aya emihlanganweni nanyana asuke endaweni yangekhabo. U-Albertina wasiqoqela bona kwakunjani ukutlhoriswa mapholisa.

“Amapholisa gade akokoda emzini ongakalungi, ngeiri lokuthoma ebusuku. Ngesinye isikhathi besingazi kobana bafunani. Gade bavele bangitjele bona sebayazihlolela nje, ukwenzela kwaphela ukusitlhorisa. Uyazi, lokha nabakokodako, gade bakokoda yoke iminyango kanye nawowoke amavesidiri. Lokha nawuvula umnyango, bewuthola umuzi uzonjwe mapholisa, afuna bona uvule, lokho kwakukungitlhorisa”

Abantwana bakwaSisulu nabo gade bayithanda endaba yepolotiki le. UNkuli indodana yakhona ebuphetjhani yabanjwa emitjhagalweni wabafundi we-Soweto, wabotjhwa bewabetjhwa mapholisa. Ulindiwe indodakazi yakhona elizibulo, wabotjhwa wabanjwa endaweni lapha khabe abotjhwe khona e-John Vorster square ngebanga lokuzibandakanya nehlangano ye-Black Consciousness Movement (BCM). Indodana yabo, uZwelakhe wadingiswa okwenza bona aphelelwe msebenzi wakhe wokuba mbikindaba. Lokhu kwaletha ubudisi kuAlbertina ongakhange aphatheke kuhle lokha nakabona ubudisi obuthwelwe bantwabakhe.

Ukutlanywa Ngabutjha Kwezepolotiki

Ngonyaka ka-1981 ukudingiswa kwaka-Albertina akhange kusavuselelwa. Wavalwa umlomo iminyaka eyi-18, nekusikhathi eside khulu ekhe umuntu adingiswako, eSewula Africa kuze kufike iskhatheso. Ngemva kokobana benze njalo waragela phambili ngomsebenzakhe e-FEDSAW kanye noMongameli we-United Democratic Front (UDF). Kodwana, ngonyaka ka-1983 wabotjhwa godu ngebanga lokugcucuzela ihlangano ye-ANC emngcwabeni womnganakhe, wagwetjwa iinyanga ezilikhomba ayedwa naphambi kokobana atjhatjhululwe. Ngemva kweminyaka emibili godu wabotjhelwa ukulinga ukuketula urhulumende. Ngesikhatheso watjhatjhululwa ngemva kokobana kube nomtjhagalo omkhulu, kanye nokobana kube nemibono evela eenarheni zangaphandle engakhambisani norhulumende webandlululo.

Ngonyaka ka-1989 ubabakwakhe uWalter watjhatjhululwa ejele. Nonyaka wona lowo ihlangano ye-ANC kwajanyiswa ukudingiswa kwayo, u-Albertina kanye no-Walter basebenza budisi ukuzivusa eendabeni zepolotiki. UWalter wakhethwa wabangusekela Mongameli we-ANC, u-Albertina wakhethwa wabangusekela Mongameli we-ANC Women’s League. Wakhamba wayokuhlangana noMongameli walokha we-US u-Goerge W Bush kanye noJimmy Carter kanye noMinista we-UK uMargaret Thatcher, abaqoqela ngendlela abantu abanzima beSewula Africa baphila ngaphasi kobujamo obubudisi, begodu abagcugcuzela bona baragele phambili nenjeziso abaziphe urhulumende webandlululo bangamsekeli urhulumende webandlululo.

Translated by Busisiwe Skhosana