Masungulo ya Nelson Mandela

© Eric Miller

Ntirho wosungula wa Mandela

Nelson Rolihlahla (Madiba) Mandela i wanuna wohlamarisa swinene loyi anga cinca matimu ya Afrika Dzonga na ku tisa xidimokirasi erixakeni. Nelson Mandela u velekiwe hiti 18 July 1918 exitikwanini xa Mvezo, kusuhi nale Umtata e Transkei, Afrika Dzonga. Tata wa yena ari Chief Councillor eka Hosi nkulu wava Thembu. Loko ahari xijaheteni, a lulamiseriwa kuva a ta teka xitulu xa vuhosi byava Thembu. Loko tata wayena vatava valovile hi 1930, uvekiwe eka nhlayiso wa khazi wayena, David Dalindyebo, loyi a khomerile eka vuhosi byava Thembu.
Loko ahari ekaya, ari kululamiseriweni ka vukati kuya hi ndzhavuko waka vona. Ku balekela vukati byebyo, Mandela na khazi wa yena Justice varhurhele e Johannesburg laha anga fika a tirha nkarhi nyana tani hi murindzi. Xikongomelo xa Nelson Mandela akuri kuva muyimeri. E Johannesburg, uhlangane na Walter Sisulu loyi anga nwipfuna kuva a kuma ntirho tani hi matsalani eka feme ya vayimeri. Loko atava a hetile tidyondzo ta BA degree hiku dyondza ari ekule hi 1941, Mandela uvuye ati tsarisela ku dyondza e University ya Witwatersrand laha a tokotela tidyondzo ta LLB.

Pfhumba ro sihalala ra 1952

Swinwe na Walter Sisulu na Oliver Tambo, Nelson Mandela u pfunetile kuva kusunguriwa African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) hi 1944. Loko kuya fika 1948 ari na xitulu xavu matsalani wa tiko hinkwaro eka vandla leri. Hi 1949 vandla ra African National Congress (ANC) vaseketele 'Programme of Action' leyinga nyikeriwa eka conference ya lembe. Swirho swa matimba swotani hi Mandela na Sisulu va hlawuriwile eka nongonoko lowu.
Mandela na Sisulu avanga tshembi mintlawa ya valungu, kambe mavonelo ya Mandela ya vuye ya cinca hinkarhi wa Defiance Campaign ya 1952. Mandela ari 'Volunteer-in-chief' ya tiko hinkwaro ya Defiance Campaign. Tani hi xiphemu xa mintirho yayena a famba famba na tiko hinkwaro atsarisa van’wana va vatinyiketeri lava avatiyimiserile ku tshova milawu ya xihlawuhlawu leyi ayirikona hinkarhi walowo. Tani hi xikombiso xosungula xo sihalala ehenhla ka xihlawuhlawu, Mandela na 51 wa vatinyiketeri vasungule ku tlula swipimelo swaku famba famba eswitarateni.

Ntirhisano wosungula wa vayimeri wa vantima

Hi December 1952, Mandela na Oliver Tambo vapfule feme yosungula ya vayimeri vavantima laha tikweni. Hinhweti yoleyo, Mandela na vanwana lava a tirha navona vavuye va hehliwa hi nandzu wa Suppression of Communism Act. Mandela a gweviwa 9 wa tinhweti ekhotsweni laha a fanele a tirha mintirho yotika swinene, laha yinga vuya yi yimisiwa kuringana malembe mambirhi.
Eka nkarhi woringana 9 wa malembe ayirisiwile. Hinkarhi lowu se ari xandla xa president ya ANC tiko hinkwaro. Hambi leswi anga pfumeleriwi kuya eka tinhlengeletano ta vandla ra ANC, a tirha na minltawa leyintsongo ya swirho swa ANC

Kungu ra M

Nelson Mandela u hoxe xandla swinene eka ku endliwa ka kungu ra 'M Plan' (rithyiwe hikwalaho ka yena). Kungu leri ari endla leswaku mintlawa ya swirho swa ANC swita kota kufikelela mintirho yale xihundleni ya vandla. Mpfuxelelo wa kuyirisiwa ka yena swiendle leswaku swiva swa nkoka kuva Madiba atshika ntirho eka ANC hi September 1953. Kusukela kwalano Madiba a fanele kurhangela exihundleni, handle ka hinkarhi wa Treason Trial.
Hi December 1956 Mandela na van’watipolotiki kuloni va 155 va khomiwile laha vanga hehliwa hi nandzu wa High Treason. Kwalomu ka 5 wamalembe lawa yanga landzela, Justice Rumpff angava vonanga nandzu hinkwavo ka vona. Kuya eku heleni kava 1950s Mandela uve President ya ANC Youth League ya tiko hinkwaro. Hi 1959 treason trial aya haya emahlweni. Eka lembe rero, vandla ra ANC rikunguhata pfhumba ra anti-pass. Pfhumba leri rivuye rikavanyeteka loko vandla ra Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), ri lulamise kukombisa kuvilela lokukulu swinene ka anti-pass protests hiti 21 March 1960.

Kuvikiwa ka State of Emergency

Eka yan’wana mapfhumba yokombisa kuvilela, kuve na Sharpeville massacre. Leswi swiendle leswaku kuyirisiwa vandla ra ANC na ra PAC naswona mfumo wu vikile state of emergency. Hi nkarhi lowu wa state of emergency kwalomu ka 1 800 wa van’watipolotiki, kukatsa na Mandela,vapfaleriwile kurihava nandzu kumbe kutengisiwa. Hi March 1961 All-In Africa Conference yikhomeriwe e Pietermaritzburg. Mintlawa ya tipolotiki yohambana hambana yihlanganile. Ku yirisiwa ka Mandela swivuye swihundzeriwa hinkarhi madyambu ya siku leringava kona kunga se sungula conference, leswinga nwi pfumelela leswaku aya humelela swinga languteriwanga. Kwalano u vhele a vekiwa tani hi Honorary Secretary ya All-In National Action Council.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni