Intsuku Zokuqala zika Nelson Mandela

© Eric Miller

Eyona Ndawo ka Mandela

uNelson Rolihlala (Madiba) Mandela yindoda emangalisayo eyatshintsha imbali yo Mzantsi Afrika yazisa inkululeko kweli lizwe. uNelson Mandela wazalwa ngomhla we 18 July 1918 kwilali encinci yase Mvezo, cebukuhle eMtata kwelase Transkei , eMzantsi Afrika.

Utata wakhe waye yinkosi enguceba kwinkosi enkulu yaba Thembu. Eseyi nkwenkwana wayelungiselelwa ukuthatha indawo yokubayi Nkosi yabathembu. Ukusweleka kuka tata wakhe ngonyaka ka 1930, wafakwa phantsi kohoyo lwalowo owamkhathalelayo ekwanguye nomzala wakhe uDavid Dalindyebo, elibambela lenkosi yabaThembu. Walungiselelwa umtshato, ebonelwe omakazimanye naye.uMandela nomzala wakhe uJustice bahamba bayokuhlala eGoli apho wasebenza okwexeshana njengono gada wasebusuku.

Injongo ka Nelson Mandela yayiku kubali Gqwetha. eGoli wadibana no Walter Sisulu owamncedayo ukufumana umsebenzi ngenjomabalana ofuna ukubaligqetha kwi ofisi zama gqwetha eGoli. Oku kwakusemveni kokuba egqibe izifundo zakhe i-BA ngofundela endlini ngoyaka ka 1941, uMandela wabhalisa kwi Yunivesithi yase Witwatersrand ukwenza izifundo zobugqwetha (LLB).

Umkhankaso Wokuchasana Ngonyaka ka 1952

Kunye no Walter Sisulu no Oliver Tambo, uNelson Mandela wancedisa ekusekeni I African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL) ngonyaka ka 1944. Ngonyaka ka 1948 wayebambe isikhundla sokuba ngunobhala jikelele. Ngonyaka ka 1949 iAfrican National Congress (ANC) yaxhasa inkqubo yesenzo eyaziwa ngokubayi “Programme of Action” eyanikezwa kwi nkomfa yabo ya nyaka ngonyaka.

Amalungu azimiseleyo anje ngo Mandela noSisulu aye akhethwa kule nkqubo. uMandela noSisulu babengazithembi ezinye intlanga, kodwa imbono zika Mandela zatshintsha ngexesha lo mkhankaso wokuchasana ngonyaka ka 1952. uMandela wenziwa i”Volunteer in Chief” yelizwe jikelele lalo mkhankaso wokuchasa owaziwa ngokuba yi “Defiance Campaign”.

Njengenye yemisebenzi yakhe wayehamba kuMzantsi Afrika wonke etyikityisa abantu bokuvolontiya ababekulungele ukuphula imithetho yorhulumente wocalu calulo. Njengo mzekelo wokuqala womkhankaso wokuchasa nengcinezelo, uMandela nama volontiya angamashumi amahlanu nanye (51) baqala ukokuphula imithetho yesiqhelo.

Ukubambisana Kokuqala Kwezobu Gqwetha Kubantu Abamnyama

Ngo Decemba ka 1952, uMandela no Oliver Tambo, bavula ukubambisana kokuqala kwabantu abamnyama kwezobugqwetha kweli lizwe. Kule nyanga inye, uMandela namanye amatsha ntliziyo bafakwa phantsi kwe Suppresion and Communism Act. uMandela wagwetywa inyanga ezilithoba (9) eluvalelweni esetyenziswa nzima, ze yaxhonywa iminyaka emibini.

Kwithuba leminyaka elithoba (9) wayephantsi kwemithetho yokungavumeleki. ngelixesha kusekwa usekela Mongameli we ANC jikelele. Nangona wayengavumelekanga ukungena imihlangano ye ANC, wasebenza namaqembu amancinci nama lungu we ANC.

Icebo elingu M

uNelson Mandela wadlala indawo eku cebeni icebo elaziwa ngokuba yi ‘M Plan’ (ebizwa ngegama lakhe). Elicebo lalibandakanya ukudityaniswa kwamalungu we ANC ukuze akwazi ujongana nemisebenzi esemfihlakalweni. Uhlaziyo lwesibheno kwenza uMadiba anyanzeleke abeke phantsi iintambo kumbutho we ANC ngo September 1953.

Ukususela ngalo mzuzu uMadiba kwanyanzeleka akhokele ngokuse mfihlakalweni , ngaphandle komnyaka we tyala loku ngcatsha. Ngo Decemba ka 1956 uMandela namatshantliziyo alikhulu elinamashumi amahlanu anesihlanu (155) baye babanjwa babekwa ityala loku ngcatsha umbuso. Emveni kweminyaka emihlanu, uJustice Rumpff wafumana bonke ababe bekwe ityala bengenatyala.

Ekupheleni kuku 1950 uMandela wabangu Mongamli jikelele we ANC Youth League. Ngo 1959 ityala loku ngcatsha umbuso lalisa qhubeka. Kwangalo nyaka, iANC yaceba umkhankaso ochasene namapasi. Lo mkhankaso wa suswa xa iPan Africanist Congress (PAC) yahlanganisa uqhankqalazo ukuchasana namapasi ngo mhla we 21 kwinyanga ka March nonyaka ka 1960.

Ixesha lika Xaxeka

Ngexesha loqhankqalazo, kwenzeka iSharpeville massacre. Oku ke kwenza okokuba i-ANC ne PAC norhulumente kwagqitywa okokuba lixesha likaxakeka. Ngelixesha lika xakeka amatsha ntliziyo ezopolitiko ayi1800, no Mandela bavalelwa bengabekwanga tyala kwaye benga tshutshiswa.

Ngo March ka 1961 inkomfa ye iAll-In-Africa yabanjelwa ePietermaritzburg. Amaqela ngamaqela ezopolitiko adibana. Isibheno ku Mandela saphelelwa ngosuku phambi kwala nkomfa, wanyanzeleka avele engalindelekanga. Emveni koko wanikwa iwonga lika nobhala we All-In-National Action Council.

Translated by Zikhona Plaatjie