Ukuqala kukaNelson Mandela

© Eric Miller

Umsebenzi wokuqala kaMandela

UNelson Rolihlahla (Madiba) Mandela uyindoda emangalisayo eyashintsha umlando eNingizimu Afrika futhi yaletha intando yeningi esizweni. UNelson Mandela wazalwa ngo 18 Ntulikazi i 1918 emzaneni omncane waseMvezo, ngaseMtata eTranskei, eNingizimu Afrika. Uyise wayeyiKhansela eliPhethe kuMphathi oPhezulu weThembu. Njengomfana osemncane, wayekulungele ukuthatha isikhundla sikaMongameli weThembu.
Ngesikhathi ubaba wakhe efa ngo-1930, wabekwa ngaphansi komnakekeli wakhe nomzala wakhe, uDavid Dalindyebo, oyinhloko ephethe iThembu. Ngesikhathi esekhaya, kwakumiswa umshado olungiselelwe. Ukuze agweme ukushada, uMandela nomzala wakhe ubulungiswa bathuthela eGoli lapho esebenza khona okwesikhashana njengomlindi wobusuku. Umgomo kaNelson Mandela kwakuwukuba ngummeli. EGoli, uhlangane noWalter Sisulu owamsize ekutholeni umsebenzi njengomabhalane okhulunywe nge-firm firm. Lapho eqedela i-BA degree nge-mail ngo-1941, uMandela wabhalisa eNyuvesi yaseWitwatersrand ngeLLB.

Ukubambisana Okusemthethweni Okumnyama Okuqala

NgoDisemba 1952, uMandela no-Oliver Tambo bavula ubudlelwane bokuqala bezomthetho kuleli zwe. Ngenyanga efanayo, uMandela nezinye izishoshovu zahlelwa ngaphansi kokususwa koMthetho wobuKhomanisi. UMandela ugwetshwe izinyanga eziyisishiyagalolunye ejele ngokusebenza kanzima, emisiwe iminyaka emibili. Kwaphela iminyaka engaba yisishiyagalolunye wabeka ngaphansi kwama-oda wokuvimbela. Ngalesi sikhathi wabuye waba iPhini likaMongameli we-ANC we-ANC. Nakuba engavunyelwe ukuya emihlanganweni ye-ANC, wasebenza namaqembu amancane amalungu e-ANC.

Uhlelo M

UNelson Mandela wadlala indima enkulu ekwakhiweni kwe-'M Plan '(ebizwa ngokuthi nguye). Lolu hlelo lwakha ukuqoqwa kwamalungu e-ANC ukuze abhekane nomsebenzi ongaphansi komhlaba. Ukuvinjelwa okuvuselelwe kwenza kube nzima ukuba uMadiba ashiye esikhundleni se-ANC ngoSeptemba 1953. Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi uMadiba kwadingeka ahambe ngasese, ngaphandle konyaka we-Treason Trial. NgoDisemba 1956 uMandela kanye nezishoshovu zezombusazwe ezingu-155 baboshwa futhi bahlawuliswa yi-High Treason.
Cishe eminyakeni emihlanu kamuva, uJustice Rumpff wathola bonke abasolwa bengenacala. Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka ka-1950 uMandela waba uMongameli kaZwelonke we-ANC Youth League. Ngonyaka we-1959 inkantolo yokuhlukunyezwa yayisathuthuka. Ngonyaka ofanayo, i-ANC ihlele umkhankaso wokulwa nomthetho wokulwa nokupasa. Lo mkhankaso wasuswa lapho iPan Africanist Congress (PAC), ihlezi imibhikisho eminingi yokulwa namaphasi ngomhla ka-21 Mashi 1960.

Isimo sokuphuthumayo

Ngesinye sezimbhikisho, kubulawe i-Sharpeville. Lokhu kwaholela ekuvinjweni kwe-ANC kanye ne-PAC kanti uhulumeni wabeka isimo sokuphuthumayo. Phakathi nesikhathi sesimo esiphuthumayo kwaze kwafika izishoshovu zezombusazwe ezingu-1 800, kuhlanganise noMandela, ziboshwe ngaphandle kokukhokhiswa noma icala. NgoMashi 1961 iNkomfa Yonke In-Afrika yabanjelwa eMgungundlovu. Amaqembu ezepolitiki ahlukahlukene ahlangana ndawonye. Umyalelo wokuvinjelwa kukaMandela uphelelwa yisikhathi ngaphambi kwenkomfa, uvumela ukuba enze ukubukeka okumangale. Kamuva wabekwa njengoNobhala Wehloniphekile womkhandlu wakonke esenzweni sikazwelonke.

Translated by Nsika Khoza