Kucala kwa Nelson Mandela

© Eric Miller

Umsebenti wa Mandela Longuwona

Nelson Rolihlahla (Madiba) Mandela yindvodza lesimanga lowagucula umlandvo eNingizimu Afrika waletsa lukhetfo esiveni. Nelson Mandela watalwa ngenyanga yaKholwane natilishumi nesiphohlongo esigodzini lesincane sase Mvezo, dvutane nase Mtata eTranskei, eNingizimu Afrika. Babe wakhe bekaSikhulu seKhanseli eSikhulwini lesikhulu sebaThembu. Njengemfana lomncane, bekalungiselelwa kutsi atsatse njengeSikhulu sebaThembu. Ngekufa kwa babe wakhe nga 1930, waniketwa umzala kanye nalomnakekelako kutsi bamugadze, David Dalindyebo, lobekwe kubaSikhulu seba Thembu kwamanje.
Asahleti ekhaya, beku nemshado lowawulungiselelwa yena. Kuze angatoshada, Mandela kanye nemzala wakhe Justice bahamba bayohlala eGoli lapho afike wasebenta njengamantjingelani. Nelson Mandela abekadze afuna kuba ngumumeli. Egoli, wahlangana na Walter Sisulu lowamusita ngekutfola umsebenti njengalobuke lokutindzaba nemafemu lasemtsetfweni. Watsi nakacedza iBA yakhe ngekufundza ngeliposi ngemnyaka wa 1941, Mandela wafundza eNyuvesi ye Witwatersrand wenta iLLB.

Umkhankaso weTinkinga ngemnyaka wa 1952

Babonkhe na Walter Sisulu kanye na Oliver Tambo, Nelson Mandela walekelela ngekutfola Licembu lelincane le African National Congress (ANCYL) ngemnyaka wa 1944. Ngemnyaka wa 1948 bekabambe lesikhundla sekuba ngu Mabhalane we Sive. Ngemnyaka wa 1949 iAfrican National Congress (ANC) yasekela ‘Loluhlelo Lwekusebenta’ lebelingeniswe kumhlangano wabo wemnyaka. Lining lemalunga lanemfutfo lafana na Mandela kanye na Sisulu akhetfwa kuloluhlelo.
Mandela na Sisulu abazange batsembe lelicembu lelibandlululako, kepha imibono ya Mandela yagucuka ngesikhatsi Semkhankaso wetinkinga ngemnyaka wa 1952. Mandela wentiwa ʹLivolontiya le Sive -ngekuba-sikhulu’ se Mkhankaso weKuTsemba. Njengencenye yemsebenti wakhe abehamba iNingizimu Afrika yonkhe asayina labafuna kuvolontiya labalungele kubhidlita imiyalo yelubandlululo. Njengeluphawu lwabo lwekucala lwekulwa nelubandlululo , Mandela kanye nemavolontiya lamashumi lasihlanu nakunye bacala ngekwephula imiyalo letsite.

Budlelwane Bekucala Lobusemtsetfweni kwebantfu Labamnyama

Ngenyanga yeNgongoni emnyakeni wa 1952, Mandela na Oliver Tambo bavula budlelwane lobusemtsetfweni bebantfu labamnyama kwekucala eveni. Ngayo yona leyonyanga, Mandela kanye nalabanye bepolitiki babikwa ngephansi kweSento Sekucindzetela. Mandela wagwetjwa tinyanga letiyimfica ejele nekusebenta lokundzima, wamiswa iminyaka lemibili.
Emva kwesikhatsi seminyaka lemine wafakwa ngaphansi kwendlela yebantfu labamisiwe. Ngalesisikhatsi waphindze wentiwa Lisekela laMengameli weSive ku ANC. Noma nje bekangakavumeleki kungenela emihlangano ye ANC, bekasebenta nemacembu lamancane emalunga eANC.

Lisu la M

Mandela wadlala indzima lenkhulu ekuhlanganiseni ‘lelisu la M’ (leletsiwa ngaye). Lelisu lakha kuhlangana kwemalunga eANC kuze akhone kwenta tintfo tangense. Kuvusetelwa kwekumiswa kwenta kwabaluleka ku Mandela kutsi ashiye iANC ngenyanga yeNyoni emnyakeni wa 1953. Kusuka lapho Madiba kwadzinga kutsi ahole ngemfihlo, ngaphandle kwemnyaka wekujeziswa njengesigcili.
Ngenyanga yeNgongoni emnyakeni wa 1956 Mandela kanye nalabanye bepolitiki labalikhulu nemashumi lasihlanu nesihlanu baboshwa baphindze bagwetjwa ngekujeziswa lokuPhakeme. Kwatsi emva kweminyaka lesihlanu muva, Justice Rumpff watfola bonkhe labasolwa kutsi abanacala. Ekupheleni kwa 1950 Mandela waba nguMengameli weSive ku Cembu Lensha le ANC. Ngemnyaka wa 1959 lelicala lekujeziswa belisolo lichubeka. Ngawo wona loyo mnyaka, iANC yalungisa umtsetfo wekukhankasa wekwengca. Lomkhankaso watsatfwa ngesikhatsi iPan Africanist Congress (PAC), ilungiselela kubhikishela kwendlula ngenyanga yeNdlovu natimashumi lamabili nakunye ngemnayka wa 1960.

Indlela Yekuphutfuma yaVetwa

Ngesikhatsi sasinye setitelega, kufa kwebantfu eSharpeville kwenteka. Loku kwakhokha kumiswa kwe ANC kanye ne PAC kantsi na huumende waveta indlela lephutfumako. Ngalesikhatsi sekuphutfuma babayinkhulungwane nemakhulu lasiphohlongo bantfu bepolitiki, kufaka ekhatsi yena Mandela, lababoshwa ngaphandle kwekugwetjwa noma licala. Ngenyanga ye Ndlovu emnyakeni wa 1961 Umhlangano wema Afrika onkhe wawubanjwe ePieternaritzburg. Emacembu epolitiki lamaningi ahlangana. Lendlela yekuvala/kumisa Mandela yaphelelwa sikhatsi ebusuku balomhlangano, lokwamenta ente kuvela lobekungatiwa. Ngaleso sikhatsi wabekwa njengaMabhalane Welilungelo lwe Khansela Leyentako Esiveni Sonkhe.

Translated by Phindile Malotana