Intsaba yeMapungubwe

Umncele wase Mpumalanga bowuPhitsitela noma Bowuchazana Ngendlela Letsite

©Roger de la Harpe
Ngasekupheleni kwemnyaka wekucala weSikhatsi Lesatiwako, lomncele losempumalanga wase Afrika wawuphitsitela/uchazana. Bantfu baselwandle base Arab nema Asian batfola kutsi lesikhatsi sentsengo siyahhusha, lekwenta kutsi bona basefe ngetulu na phansi kundzawo lesedvute nelwandle eAfrika lapho batsatsakhona tikhumba tetilwane, igolide ne ivory kulendzawo. Titeshi letiningi tekutsengisa tatentiwe etindzaweni letifana ne Zanzibar, Mogadishu, Madagascar kanye ne Kilwa, bakha indlela yekuchumana ngekutsengisa ngemkhumbi lowacagela luhambo loludze lwase Europe lwekutfolwa ngetulu kweminyaka lemakhulu lasihlanu.

Lesiteshi lekungiso lesiseningizimu bekuyiSofala, lebeyikadze iseceleni kwelidolobha lesimanje lase Beira, eMozambique. Njengaloku, emacembu ebatfwali base Afrika labaphuma ngekhatsi bebatfwala tintfo tabo tekutsengiswa baye emnceleni, lapho bekutshintjiswa batfole buhlalu beligilasi, tigogo taselwandle kanye nelicetu leligilasi leliphuma eMphumalanga leKhashane.

Imitsetfo yeBantfu Labaphila Ndzawonye eMapungubwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Kusukela ngesigodzi sase Limpopo lesitfwele tintfo letiphilako tetindlovu tesiganga kwentela le ivory kanjalo nencenye yeligolide lehwayako leyi alluvial emifuleni, tive letehlukene kulesigodzi tatfola imphumelelo. Kancane ngekuhamba kwesikhatsi, laba bosomabhizinisi bacala kutfutfukisa kuphila kwabo lokuphetselene nekuceba kwabo kanye nesigaba.

Ngenhlanhla, ngaleso sikhatsi, lesimo sasisesimeni sekulunga nesebungani kantsi nekutfutfukisa letigodlo kwentiwa tindzawo letitivundzelako kanye nemihlambi leminingi.

Indzawo lelula nalebonakalako yaletintfo letitsengwako naletitsengiswako teNsimbi yemasiko beyisendzaweni lengemakhilomitha lamaningi kuya enyakatfo-nshona yase Kruger National Park, eceleni kwemjomelelo wasemifuleni weLimpopo ne Shashe. Nga 1200, lendzawo itfutfuke yaba litiko lelimacembu laphetfwe ngumuntfu munye, atfola kuva ngetulu kwemakhilomitha lamakhulu lamaningi etikwele kulokuligede lekwengca namuhla tigodzi emkhatsini we Botswana, Zimbabwe kanye ne Ningizimu Afrika.

Namuhla yatiwa ngeMapungubwe yebantfu labaphila ndzawonye, lidolobha lelikhulu lakhiwa ngasentsatjaneni lengase ningizimu yeMfula wase Limpopo. Ngetulu kwentsatjana kwakuhlala inkhosi kanye nelibandla lelincane.

Etinyaweni/ekungeneni kwalentsaba kwakuhlala sive lesiningi lesitinkhulungwane, lebesikadze sibuka kunkhosi yaso ngelitsemba lelitsite.

Limuva lase Mapungubwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Iminyaka lelikhulu, bantfu lebebahlala eMapungubwe Hill bakhula. Kwatsi, ngekushesha, labantfu bashabalala. Akukhombi shengatsi lentsaba yangenelwa ngumbutfo wangaphandl, kushintja kwesimo selitulu kanye nesomiso kwaphocelela bantfu kutsi bachubekele phambili. Loko bekukadze kuyinkinga, ngesikhatsi lesasetjentiswa ngaphambi kwa 1290, iMapungubwe yalahlwa kanjalo. Tive tase Afrika lebetikadze tihlala kulendzawo tatsatsa lentsaba njengendzawo lelihlazo. Kwakutsiwa likhaya lemadloti bese loyo lototama kuncanca lentsaba bekatawucalekiswa. iMapungubwe yabese iyalahlwa/ yashiywa kwatsi indzaba yebantfu bakhona yasala imbonyiwe ngemahlahla iminyaka lesikhombisa.

Kungemnyaka wa 1930 kuphela lapho khona balimi labamhlophe bakulendzawo beva ngekulahlwa kwalentsaba kanye, nekunganaki tinkholelo, bacanca lomkhatsi lonyukelako. Lokutfolwa kwemathuna lamaningi esigodlo kulentsaba, lebekaphelele ngemathuna egolide lakahle, kwavusa kugagabula kweminyaka lemashumi lasikhombisa lokusenteka namanje.

Kungavakali kwase Mapungubwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Tiningi tindzawo tema archaeological lapho khona lokungavakali kahle kwalokwendlula kanye nebantfu baseminyakeni basafika kulendzawo. iMapungubwe Hill ('Indzawo ya Jakalazi') yakhelwe dvute neligede lase Musina. Bekuvame kubalibhilidi lemvelo lelicinile futsi kwahlalwa khona phakatsi wa AD 950 kuya 1200. Lokwatfolwa kwafaka imikhicito leminingi yeligolide lelincane futs kukhomba lisiko lekutsengisa emkhatsini we Afrika, India ne China.

Sikhatsi se Afrika Lesikhweshile

©Roger de la Harpe
iMapungubwe yi phakhi yekucala yesive leyanikwa sikhatsi se Afrika lesikhweshile; sinye lesihalalisa umlandvo lowake walahlwa. Kepha kungetulu kunepolitiki. iMapungubwe itiveta yatiwa ngoba yindzawo yekuvakashela lekahle.

Lombukiso wakhona awukavami futsi uyabonakala kantsi ulula nekuwubona. Lamakhempu ekuphumulela kuwo mahle. Nalephakhi itfwele tindzawo letintsatfu letimcoka te archaeological ye Mapungubwe Hill, K2 kanye ne Schroda.

Translated by Phindile Malotana