Xintshabyana xa Mapungubwe

Mphensa-mphensa e East Coast

©Roger de la Harpe
Ekuheleni ka millennium yosungula ya Common Era, east coast ya Africa ayiri mphensa-mphensa. Vatluti va swikepe vama Arab na Asian vavuye vakuma moya wa vuxavisi lowu awurikona, lowunga hunga wuva pfuna kuva vata fika e Africa laha vanga fika va xava madzovo ya swihari, nsuku na timhondzo ta tindlopfu kusuka eka vaxavisi valaha kaya. Tindzhawu tinwana ta vuxavisi tivuye tiva kona eka tindzhawu tofana nale Zanzibar, Mogadishu, Madagascar nale Kilwa, leswinga endla leswaku kuva na ntirhisano wa vuxavisi ekusuhi na lwandle lebyinga humelerisa vuyeni byotala kusuka e Europe hikwalomu ka kutlula malembe ya 500.

Xitichi xo xavisela eka xona lexi axiri edzongeni ngopfu akuri xa Sofala, lexi sweswi xinga tshama kusuhi swinene nale dorobeni ra Beira, e Mozambique. Swaha te tano, mintlawa ya vaxavisi va Afrika ava ta yisa swixavisiwa swavona kutshunela etibuweni ta lwandle laha ava swicincisa kuva vakuma vuhlalu bya nghilazi, swo ambala enhanwini xikanwe na swiphemu swa porcelain kusuka e Far East.

Nhluvuko wa Mapungubwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Tani hileswi ndzhawu ya Limpopo ayiri na mphakelo lowu hanyeke kahle wa tindlopfu kuva kukumeka timhondzo xikanwe na swiphemu swa swinedliwa swa nsuku kusuka emilambyeni, tinxaka tinwana tive na kuhumelela eka ndzhawu leyi. Kantsongo ka ntsongo, van’wamabindzu lava vakhale vasungule kukurisa nhluvuko kuya hi rifuwo naku tiviwa endzhawini. Nkateko wa kona, hinkarhi walowo, maxelo ayari eka xiyimo xa kahle naswona tindzhawu ta vuhosi leti ataha kula atirhi na misava yonona na swifuwo swakahle.

Ndzhawu ya kahle ya vuxaviselo bya ndzhavuko wa xikhale ayiri eka madzana dzana ya tikilomitara kusuka en’walungu vupela dyambu bya Kruger National Park, kusuhi nalaha kuhlanganaka milambu ya Limpopo na Shashe. Hi malembe ya 1200, vaaki ava endle ndzhawu leyi hloniphekaka, leyi ayiri na nhlohletelo ehenhla ka madzana dzana ya tikilomitara laha sweswi kunga ndzelekano exikarhi ka matiko ya Botswana, Zimbabwe na Afrika Dzonga.

Laha namuntlha kutivekaka tani hi nhluvuko wa Mapungubwe, ntsindza wa kona awu akiwile eka rivala leri ariri ripala etlhelweni rale dzongeni wa nambu wa Limpopo. Enhlohlorhini ya xintshabyani lexi aku tshama hosi na malandza ya kona. Kasi e hansi ka ntshava aku tshama magidigidi ya vaaki va ndzhawu liya, lava ava teka hosi yavona tani hi munhu wohlawuleka swinene.

Leswi Hundzeke swa Mapungubwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Kuringana 100 wa malembe, vanhu lava ava tshama endzhawini ya xintshabyani xa Mapungubwe va humelerile. Kungase hela nkarhi woleha nhluvuko wuhela hiku hatlisa. Aswitikombi onge xintshabyani lexi axi ngheneriwile hi vanhu vale handle, kambe ku cinca cinca ka timheho na dyandza swingava swiendle leswaku vanhu varhurhela eka tindzhawu tinwana. Sweswingavaka swihumelerile, kwalomu ka 1290, Mapungubwe yivuye yitshikisiwa sweswo.

Tinxaka ta ma-Afrika letinga vuya tiya tshama eka ndzhawu liya ava teka xintshabyana lexi xiri xiyila. Axitekiwa tani hindzhawu ya valehansi naswona aku rhukaniwa munhu wihi na wihi loyi ata khandziya xintshabyani lexi. Mapungubwe yihetelele yitshikisiwa sweswo naswona xitori xa vanhu vakona xitshamise xiphutseriwe hi xihlamariso kuringana kwalomu ka 700 wa malembe.

Akuri kwalomuya ka malembe yava 1930 laha van’wamapurasi va valungu endzhawini liya vanga twa hita xintshabyani lexi xoyirisiwa, naswona avanga vilerisiwi hi leswi aswitshembiwa hi xona, kutani va xikhandziyile. Kutlhela kukumeka nakambe masirha ya vuhosi ehenhla ka ntshava, yahelerile na sirha ra nsuku, swiendle leswaku kusunguriwa ku ceriwa lokunga teka 70 wa malembe loku kaha yaka emahlweni.

Swihlamariso swa Mapungubwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Kuna tindzhawu totala ta archaeology laha leswitshembiwaka swa khale xikan’we na vanhu va khale vaha hluphaka ndzhawu leyi. Xintshabyani lexi xa Mapungubwe (‘Place of the Jackal’) xitshame ekusuhani swinene na doroba ra Musina endzelekanini. Khale akova nhova yantumbuluko kambe kuvuye kuya tshama vanhu exikarhi ka AD 950 kuya eka1200. Swikumiwa swikatsa swilo swotala swa vutshila leswingana nsuku leswi tlhelaka swikombisa ndzhavuko waku xaviselana exikarhi ka Africa, India na China.

Nkarhi wo Hlawuleka wa Afrika

©Roger de la Harpe
Mapungubwe kuve wona ntanga wosungula wa tiko kuva wukongomisiwa eka nkarhi wo hlawuleka wa xi-Afrika; lowu tlangelaka matimu lawa yanga tshama ya kanetiwa kumbe ku bakanyeriwa etlhelo.

Kambe leswi switlula na tipolotiki. Mapungubwe yisungula ku kombeta ndhuma yayona hikuva indzhawu ya kahle swinene kuyi vhakela. Moya wakona wu hunga hindlela yoka yinga tolovelekangi naswona ya hlamarisa. Tinkamba ta vuwiselo ta hlamarisa. Naswona ntanga wuna tindzhawu tinharhu ta nkoka ta archaeology kunga xintshabyani xa Mapungubwe, K2 na Schroda.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni