Intaba i-Mapungubwe

Unxweme Olwandayo Lwasempuma

©Roger de la Harpe
Ekupheleni kwewaka leminyaka yokuqala ngexesha eliqhelekileyo, unxweme olusempuma ye Afrika luye lwanda. Abantu abasebenza ngolwandle aphuma e-Arab kunye nase Asia bafumanise imimoya yorhwebo yonyaka, ethe yabavumela ukuba bahambe ngomkhumbi kunxwemeni lwe-Afrika apho bafike bathatha izikhumba zezilwanyana, igolide, kunye ne ayivori kuluntu lwalapho. Izitishi zorhwebo ezininzi ziye zamiselwa kwindawo ezifana ne Zanzibar, Mogadishu, Madagascar kunye ne Kilwa, lusenza inethiwekhi yorhwebo lwaselwandle olwaqala pha kwixesha lohambo lokufumanisa lwama Yurophu, eminyakeni engaphezu kweyi 500.

Esona sitishi sorhwebo ebesisezantsi yi-Sofala, ebisecaleni kwesixeko sanamhlanje i-Beira, e-Mozambique. Amaqela wama Afrika asebenza ngokuthutha iimpahla, ebephatha impahla zabo zorhwebo azise elunxwemeni, apho bezitshintshwa zibe ziiintsimbi zeglasi, amakhoba e-cowrie kunye nepisi yekheramic ephuma pha e-Far East.

Impucuko yase Mapungubwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Ngenxa yokuba ingqiqi yase Limpopo ibiphethe izinto eziphilayo zeendlovu zasendle ukwenzela i-ayivori kunye neepisi zegolide, iintlanga ezininzi zakule ndawo ziye zaphumelela. Ngokwendalo, abasomashishini baqale baphuhlisa impucuko esexabisweni esekelwe bubutyebi bomntu kunye nesimo sakhe emphakathini. Ngethamsanqa, ngelo xesha, imozulu ibikwizinga elithandekayo kwaye ubukhosi obuvelayo luqiniswe ngumhlaba ochumileyo kunye noninzi lwemfuyo.

Isakhiwo esikhulu sorhwebo lwexesha lwentsimbi, sibekwe kumakhulu ekhilomitha angase mntla-ntshona wase Kruger National Park, ecaleni kohlanga lwemilambo yase Limpopo nase Shashe. Ngo 1200, lomphakathi ukhule waba ngumbuso omkhulu, osebenzisa impembelelo ngaphezu kwezikwere zeekhilomitha ezingamakhulu amaninzi, kwindawo eyaziwa njengo mda-webhoda yengqinqi enqumla phakathi kwe Botswana, i-Zimbabwe kunye noMzantsi Afrika.

Namhlanje yaziwa njenge Mpucuko yase-Mapubungwe, isixeko dolophu sakhiwe kwindawo eyahlukileyo emcaba egcwele entabeni kwicala elingasemazantsi omlambo wase-Limpopo. Engqungqutheleni yentaba kuye kwahlala ikumkani kunye neqembu elincinane. Pha kunyawo lwentaba bekuhlala iwaka labantu, elalikholelwa ukuba ikumkani yabo ingcwele.

i-Mapungubwe Edlulileyo

©Roger de la Harpe
Kwiminyaka eyi 100, abantu ababehlala ngakwintaba yase Mapungubwe baye baphumelela. Ngequbuliso, impucuko yophuhliso yawa. Akukhangeleki ingathi intaba yahlaselwa ngamandla angaphandle, kodwa imeko yemozulu itshintshile futhi nembalelo inyanzelise abantu ukuba bahambe kulo ndawo. Nokuba yintoni isizathu, i-Mapubungwe yashiywa ngokukhawuleza.

Ibingunyaka ka 1930 apho amafama amhlophe asengingqini azivela ngalentaba engavumelekanga, futhi bebengenaxesha leenkolelo, bayinyukile lentaba besiya phezulu. Bafumane amangcwaba asebukhosini akumphezulu wentaba, agcwele zizinto zegolide zokungcwaba, ezithe zakhuthaza ugrunjo lweminyaka eyi 70 olusaqhubeka nangoku.

Imfihlelo ye-Mapungubwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Zininzi iziza zakudala apho iimfihlelo kunye nabantu bamandulo bebeporhela iindawo ezinomhlaba ombi. Intaba yase Mapungubwe (Indawo xa Dyakalashe) ibekwe ecaleni komda webhoda yase Musina. Yayiyindawo yemvelo eyinqaba futhi kuhlaliwe kuyo phakathi kwe AD 950 ukuya ku 1200. Izinto ezifunyenweyo ziquka ubuciko begolide kwaye luchaza ngezorhwebo lwenkcubeko phakathi kwase Afrika, India nase China.

Ixesha Elikhethekileyo lase Afrika

©Roger de la Harpe
i-Mapungubwe yipaki yokuqala yelizwe enikezelwe kwixesha elikhethekileyo lase Afrika, elibhiyozela imbali eyakhe yaphikwa okanye yacinywa ezincwadini.

Kodwa lento ingaphezu kwepolitiki. i-Mapungubwe ibonakalise ukuba iyathandwa ngenxa yokuba yindawo emnandi yokutyelela. Umbono wayo awuqhelekanga kwaye wahlukile. Iinkampu zona zinomtsalane. Kwaye ipaki iqulethe iziza zakudala zeNtaba yase-Mapungubwe, I K2 kunye ne Shroda.

Translated by Aviwe Damane