Intaba yeMapungubwe

iSifunda Sasogwini Empumalanga Sasithuthuka

©Roger de la Harpe
Ekupheleni kweminyaka eyinkulungwane, kwakuthuthuka kahle ogwini lwaseMpumalanga ye-Afrika. Abalandeli bezilwandle base-Arabhu nabase-Asia babezwe ngokuhweba ngezikhathi ezithile, okwabenza bakwazi ukuhamba ngomkhumbi futhi bahlele phansi ulwandle lwase-Afrika lapho bathenga khona izikhumba zezilwane, igolide nezinyo lendlovu. Iziteshi zokuhweba eziningana zaqalwa kamuva ezindaweni ezifana neZanzibar, eMogadishu, eMadagascar naseKilwa, ekwakheni inethiwekhi yezokuhweba olwandle kamuva kweminyaka engamakhulu amahlanu abelungu bengakafiki.

Isiteshi sokuhweba esasenyakatho kunawo wonke iSofala, esiseduze nomuzi wanamuhla waseBeira, eMozambique. Ngakho-ke, amaqembu ase-Afrika avela ngaphakathi angaphatha impahla yabo yokuhweba ogwini, lapho ashintshaniswa khona nobucwebe bezingilazi namagobolondo.

Impucuko yeMapungubwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Njengoba isifunda saseLimpopo sinendlovu ezinikeza izinyolo kanye negolide emifuleni, izizwe eziningana esifundeni zaphumelela kakhulu. Kancane kancane, laba osomabhizinisi bokuqala baqala ukuthuthukisa impucuko esekelwe umnotho nesimo somuntu. Ngenhlanhla, ngaleso sikhathi, isimo sezulu sasisihle futhi imibuso ekhulayo yaqiniswa ngohmlabathi otshaleka kahle nezinkomo eziningi.

Isizinda esivelele sasingamakhilomitha angamakhulu ambalwa kuya enyakatho-ntshonalanga yeKruger National Park, eduze nenhlangano yomfula weLimpopo noShashe. Ngomnyaka wama1200, lo mphakathi usuqale waba umbuso omkhulu, usebenzise ithonya ngaphezu kwamakhilomitha angamakhulu amaningi kulokhu manje esifundeni esiphakathi kweBotswana, iZimbabwe kanye neNingizimu Afrika.

Eyaziwa namuhla ngokuthi impucuko yaseMapungubwe, inhloko-dolobha eyakhiwe eduze kwentaba eningizimu yoMfula iLimpopo. Esiqongweni sentaba kwakukhona inkosi neqembu lakhe. Ngaphansi kwentaba kwahlala izakhamizi eziyizinkulungwane eziningana, ezazibheka phezulu inkosi yazo njengento engcwele.

I-Mapungubwe Edlule

©Roger de la Harpe
Kwaphela iminyaka eyikhulu abantu abahlala eduze nentaba yeMapungubwe bepucukile. Khona-ke, ngokuzumayo, impucuko yawa. Akubonakali sengathi iqhwa lihlaselwe amandla angaphandle, kodwa ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu nesomiso kungenzeka ukuba kwaphoqela abantu ukuba baqhubekele phambili. Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi kwenzekani, ngo-1290, uMapungubwe washiya ngokungazelelwe.

Izizwe zaseAfrika ezagcina zihlala endaweni zacabangela ukuthi leli gquma lizoba yinto ezilayo. Kuthiwa yikhaya labokhokho futhi kungaba nokuqalekisiwe uma indoda ingazama ukukhuphuka intaba. I-Mapungubwe akohlwa futhi indaba yabantu bayo yahlala iyimfihlakalo iminyaka engamakhulu ayisikhombisa.

Kwakungo1930 kuphela lapho abalimi abamhlophe endaweni bezwa khona ngodaba oluvinjelwe futhi, bengenandaba nenkolelo-zemvelo nosiko, bakhuphuka phezulu. Ukuthola kwabo kabusha kwamathuna amakhosi amaningi emagqumeni asebukhosini, egcwaliswe ngezimpahla zamatshe egolide, kwaqhamuka ukugubha kweminyaka engamashumi ayisikhombisa okuqhubekayo.

Imfihlakalo yaseMapungubwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Kunezindawo eziningi zokuvubukula lapho izimfihlakalo zesikhathi esedlule kanye nabantu basendulo zisavama ukuhambela lesi simo esibucayi. Intaba yaseMapungubwe ('Indawo yekhanka') iseduze komngcele weMusina. Kwakuyinqaba yemvelo futhi kwakhiwe phakathi kuka-AD 950 kuya ku-1200. Ukuthola izinto eziningi ezenziwe ngegolide futhi kubonisa isiko lokuhweba phakathi kwe-Afrika, iNdiya ne-China.

Isikhathi Esivelele sase-Afrika

©Roger de la Harpe
I-Mapungubwe iyipaki kazwelonke yokuqala engokeAfrika; egubha umlando owawukhohliwe noma ufihliwe. Kodwa kungaphezu nje kwezombangazwe. I-Mapungubwe ibonakala ithandwa ngoba iyindawo enhle yokuvakashela. Indawo engavamile futhi ehlukile. Amakamu okuphumula aphelele. Futhi ipaki nayo iqukethe izindawo ezintathu ezibalulekile zokuvubukula-iNtaba yeMapungubwe, K2 naseSchroda.

Translated by Nsika Khoza