Induduma yeMapungubwe

Kuyaphithizela Etjhagwini Pumalanga

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Ekupheleni kwe-millenium ye-common Era, etlhagwini yePumalanga, abakhambi ngenkeepe be-Arab kanye nebe-Asia gade bathole umoya wesikhathi sokuthoma kokurhweba, egade yenze bona bakghone ukukhamba ngeenkempe baye phasi phezulu nelwandle le-Africa lapha gade bathola khona, iinkhumba zeenyamazana, i-ivory kanye nerhawuda ebahlalini bakhona. Kwakutlanywe iintetjhi ezimbalwa eendaweni ezifana neZanzibar, Mogadishu kanye neKilwa, ezazenza irhwebo le-marine network eyafika ngaphambi kwabatjhayeli beenkepe be-Europe ngeminyaka yama-500 ayadlulako.

Istjetjhi serhwebo esisetjingalanga bekuyiSofala, ehlezi eduze kweDorobha eselelibizwa bona yi-Beira kwanje, eseMozambique. Abenzi bemmpoto zebumba be-Afrika ephakathi gade bathwala izinto abarhweba ngazo bazise etlhagwini, lapha gade bazitjintja bathole ngazo imincamo yerhalasi, namagobolondo alengako, gade beza godu neenqephu ze-porcelain ebuya e-Far East.

Ituthuko yabantu beMapungubwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Ngombana isifunda seLimpopo sineendlovu ezinengi okutjho bona namazinyo wazo manengi, kanye namagiqa werhawuda emilanjeni yaso, iintjhaba ezinengi esifundenesi zanjinga khulu. Kancanikancani, abarhwebi bakade bathoma ukuthuthuka ngokuya ngokobana ubani unjinge kangangani nokobana ubujamo babo bunjani emphakathini. Ngetjhudu, ngeskhathesi, ubujamo bezulu gade bubuhle begodu isigodlo esisakhulako gade sikhamba phambili ngokuba nehlabathi evundileko kanye nemihlambi emihle.

Isenta ephumeleleko yesikhathi sesiko le-iron age leli, gade lisendaweni emakhilometha ambalwa epumalanga ye-Kruger National Park, eduze kwehlanganamlambo yeLimpopo kanye neShashe. Ngeminyaka Yobo-1200, umphakathi lo waba mphakathi owaziwa khulu waziwa neendaweni ezimakhilomitha ambalwa endaweni esele yaziwa njengesiphande se-Botswana, Zimbabwe kanye neSewula Afrika.

Imapungubwe civilisation, nekuyihlokodorobha eyayakhiwe endundumeni espara phezulu ehlangothini elisetjingalangana yomlambo weLimpopo. Emamitheni wendunduma le bekuhlala ikosi nabaphekeleli bayo. Bese kuthi phasi kuhlale abahlali abamakhulu ambalwa, egade baqala phezulu ekosinabo egade bayibona iqwengekile.

Umlando weMapungubwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Iminyaka ema-100, abantu ebebahlala endundumeni yeMapungubwe gade badla kusale. Kwathi kungakalindelwa ituthuko yabantu nanyana umnotho wabo wawa. Akubonakali inga lokho kwenziwa mandla wangaphandle, kodwana kwenziwa bujamo bezulu, kanye nesomiso esakatelela abantu bona baragele phambili ngepilo. Nanyana kwaba yini eyenza lokho i-circa-1290 yatjhiywa injalo.

Iintjhabatjhaba zeAfrika egade zihlala endaweni le gade zibona intaba le, njengenelijwa. Kwakuthiwa likhaya labezimu nokobana uzokuqalekiswa umuntu ozokuzama ukugibela intaba leyo. iMapungubwe khange basayinaka, begodu indaba yabantu bakhona yahlala ivalwe njengomraro isikhathi esingaba minyaka eyi-700.

Kwathi ngeminyaka yama-1930 umlimi wekhuwa ebekahlala endaweni leyo wezwa ngeMapungubwe kanye nenkolelolize zayo, wagibela intaba leyo. Wathola amaliba webukhosini ambalwa khonapho phezulu, wawathola asese nezinto zemalibenapho, lokho ekwarholela bona kuthome ukwenjiwa okwathatha iminyaka ema-70 esolo kuragele phambili kuze kube nje.

Imiraro yeMapungubwe

©Roger de la Harpe
Kunendawo ezinengi ze-archaeology, lapha imiraro yakade kanye nabantu nanyana imimoya yemandulo isahlala khona. iMapungubwe Hill (nanyana indawo yaboJakalasi) iyindawo eseduze komgcele weMusina. Gade iyikhaseli yemvelo ekhe kwahlalwa kiyo abantu hlangana neminyaka yabo-AD 950 kuya kweye 1200. Irhubhululo lithola ama-artefacts amanengi enziwe ngerhawuda kanye nesiko lerhwebo hlangana kweSewula Afrika, India kanye ne-China.

Isikhathi seAfrika Esihlukileko

©Roger de la Harpe
Kodwana indaba le ayikaphatheleni nepolotiki kwaphela. iMapungubwe sele ithandwa khulu ngombana iyindawo ehle yokuvakatjha. Lapha kungabonwa khona iindawo ezihle, amakhempu wakhona wokuphumula mahle kwamanikelela. Begodu iikhempu le sele iinendawo ezintathu ezibaluleke khulu ekubalwa kizo i Mapungubwe Hill, K2 kanye neShroda.

Translated by Lizzy Shongwe