Steenbok
Ipunzi

© Roger de la Harpe

Igama

Ipunzi, Steenbok [Raphicerus campestris]

Ukuvela nokwakheka kwayo

Inombala ozotho okuqarheke ngombala othanda ukubomvu, iindlebe zibanzi begodu zide. Inesilinganiso sobude obuphakame ngamamilimitha amakhulu amahlanu namasumi amabili (520 mm) kanye nobudisi okubmakhilogremu alisumi nanye (11 kg). Ingaphakathi lemilenze yangemuva limhlophe twa. Ngeziduna kwaphela ezineempondo ezide eziqale phezulu ngehla kwamehlo. Idlala ebonakala inzima ngombala itholakala ngaphambi kwamehlo amakhulu amnyama. Izithwezi ezibandakanya idlala zibonakala kizo zombili eduna nesikazi.

Ukudla/Idayethi

Ipunzi le isilwani esiziphilela ngokukhamba sizidobhela ukudla, begodu izwana khulu namakhambi nofana iinthurhu. Nokho isilwani esizikhethela iimilo ezihlaza ezifana namakari, amathuthumbo, iinthelo kanye neemilo ezisatlhurhako. Umhlobo wokudla ekukhethako uyenza ikghone ukuphila ngaphandle kokuthembele ekuseleni amanzi. Ivamise ukudla imirabho, nezinye iimilo zangaphasi kwehlabathi ngenyanga yesikhathi sesomiso, lokhu ikwenza ngokuthi ikarabhe nofana irhubhe phasi umgodi obanzi notjhingelako ukwenzela bona ifumane iimilwezi ezimumethe amanzi amanengi.

Ukuzala nokukhulisa

Kusengakatholakali kuhle bona ngisiphi isikhathi esisodwa sokuzala nokukhulisa sazo. Kukhe kwagadangiswa ukuzala kwesinye nesinye isikhathi sonyaka. Nokho isikhathi sekambiso yokumitha sithatha iinyanga ezibalelwa kezilikhomba, kuthi ngemva kwalapho zizale ilamjana elilodwa.

Amalamjana ziwafihla iinyanga eentathu zokuthoma, kodwana ziphele ziwavakatjhela ekuseni ngamasa nentambama nakutjhinga ilanga ukuyowamunyisa nokuwakhulisa. Unina ulifihla ngokuthi adle ubuthuvi balo, bekasee nomthondwalo ngesikhathi alivakatjheleko, begodu le kuyindlela yokwenza bonyana ilamjana livikeleke begodu kungabi nomnuko ongalandelelwa manaba naziinlwani eziyingozi.

Ukuziphatha

Eziduna nezisikazi zivikela bezabelane isifunda. Zinjalo nje ziphila ngokuhluka nofana ngayinye. Eziduna zivamise ukutshwaya isifunda sazo ngomthondo nangothuvi, kanye nedlala elitholakala ngaphasi kwesilevu kanye nangokusebenzisa umsuqwazo. Ngizo zodwa zomndeni weempunzi othoma ngokukarabha phasi ngaphambi nangemva kokuthunda nokulahla uthuvi.

Eziduna zivamise ukwaziwa ngokusebenzisa iindlela kanye neentambo zethelefoni ukwakha imikhawulwazo. Zinekghono elihle tle lokuzwa. Zaziwa ngokuthi nazitlhoge ukudla zingenela ingcuba neensalela zenyama bezibulale neenyoni ezikhambakhambako neziphila ehlabathini.

Indawo yokuhlala/ikhaya/ isikhundla

Zizwana nokuhlala eendaweni ezivulekileko zomhlobo we-savannah, begodu lapho zizifihla ngotjni obude kanye neenkhotha. Ziyindlala khulu emahlathini, eentabeni, efukufukwini eminyeneko kanye nemadwaleni nofana ematjeni. Kesinye isikhathi zidlala emigodini yesilwani ezingazwana nabotjontjhwana (ants-bear), begodu zivamise nokusebenzisa imigodi ukuzala amalamjana.

Lapho zitholakala khona

Kwanga inengi lazo lomhlobo weempunzi ezincani zitholakala eSewula Afrika. Zisabalele ngokubanzi enarheni yoke begodu zithathwa njengomhlobo ojayelekileko.

Amanabazo

Zidliwa yiNgwe, iThwana, izinja zomango. Ihlosi, ipisi, ihlwathu kanye namakhozi anamandla.

Iimbalobalo ngepilwazo ezirhunyeziweko

Isilinganiso sobudisi (esikazi): 11 - 13 kg
Isilinganiso sobudisi (eduna): 9 - 13 kg
Isilinganiso sobude (esikazi): 90 cm
Isilinganiso sobude (eduna): 90 cm
Isikhathi sekambiso yokumitha: 6 months
Isibalo/ inani lamalamjana: 1 lamb
Ukulungela ukujarha/ukujarhwa: 6 months
Isilinganiso sobudisi ekuzalweni: 1 kg
Umhlobo/irhemo: Artiodactyla
Umndenazo: Bovidae
Iimpondo: 13 cm (record - 19 cm)
Ukuzala nokukhulisa: Zivamise ukuzala ilamjana linye, kuthi kesinye isikhathi nekungakavami abe mabili, kesinye nesinye isikhathi sonyaka (ukuzala okunengi kwenzeka phakathi kwenyanga kaSinyikhaba noNobayeni) ngemva kwesikhathi sekambiso yokumitha ekuziinyanga ezisithandathu.

Ihlathululo ngemitlhalazo

Iimitlhalazo ifana pheze neyomhlobo owaziwa nge-Oribi. Iinyawo zayo zibanzi begodu begodu zincophile, zidluladlula kancani zomhlobo we-Oribi.