Spotted Hyena
Ipisi Enamacatjhaza

© Roger de la Harpe

Igama

Ipisi (enamacatjhaza nofana enamabala) [Crocuta crocuta]

Ihlathululo

Hlangana nokhunye eyaziwa ngakho ipisi le kusilwani esiyingozi khulu emahlathini we-savanna e-Afrika, kodwana njenganje sele ibalwa hlangana neenlwazi ezizuma ngepumelelo khulu. Ukubhesa nokukhamba ngendlela engakajayeleki, kanye nesililo nofana umkhosayo kuyakhele isithombe esimbi khulu. Ipisi le ikheyathathwa njengeyomndeni wezinja, kodwana namhlanje sele ithathwa njengesilwani esinamatshwayo wakakatsu.

Ipisi le yaziwa khulu ngesililo sayo esizwakala njenge hleko, begodu kulitjhada eliqakatheke khulu lemahlathini we-Afrika ebusuku. Inehloko ekulu, ibhesele ngemuva begodu imhlobo onekghono elihlukileko lokunukelela. Ezisikazi ngizo ezivamise ukulawula umhlambi begodu zibonakala zizikhulu kunalezo eziduna. Ipisi esikazi inesilinganiso esiphakamileko esimamilimitha amakhulu abunane namasumi amahlanu (850 mm), kanye nobudisi obumakhilogremu amasumi alikhomba (70 Kg), kuthi eziduna zibe nobudisi obumakhilogremu amasumi asithandathu (60 kg).

Ipisi le inombala osarulana kanye namabalabala anzima kanye namagega neendlebe. Ezisikazi zinezitho zangasese ezipheze zibonakale njengezeduna begodu lokho kwenza bonyana kube budisi ukuhlukanisa phakathi kweduna nesikazi.

Iimbalobalo Ngepilwazo Ezirhunyeziweko

Igama lesi-Latin: Crocuta crocuta
Isilinganiso sobudisi (esikazi): 56 - 80 kg
Isilinganiso sobudisi (eduna): 46 - 79 kg
Isilinganiso sobude (esikazi): 1,5 m
Isilinganiso sobude (eduna): 1,5 m
Isikhathi sekambiso yokumitha: 3,5 months
Isibalo/ inani lamadzinyana: 2 (1 - 4)
Ukulungela ukujarha/ ukujarhwa: 2 - 3 years
Isilinganiso sekuzalweni: 1,5 kg
Umhlobo/Irhemo: Carnivora
Umndenazo: Hyaenidae
Ibelo eziligijimako: 60 km/h

Ukudla/Idayethi

Abosolwazi abanengi bangaphikisana bona umhlobo lo wepisi usilwani seSewula ye-Afrika esinepumelelo khulu ekuzumeni eenlwani ezidla inyama kwaphela, nokho nawutjheja isakhiwo sokuphilisana kwazo, kubonakala kusilwani esikarisako tle. Begade ithathwa njengesilwane esiligwala khulu ngaphambilini, kodwana ilwazi elingeneleleko ngomangwalo liveze bona ngesinye seenlwani esibukhali nesiyingozi tle.Izuma ngokuthanda, begodu umhlambi wazo uvamise ukugijimisa amabhubezi uwaqothe eenlwanini ewazibuleleko ukwenzela bona zidle iinsalelezo.

Nanyana kunjalo, imihlambi yeempisi yaziwa ngokuba mhlobo ozuma ngokuzinikela tle begodu zinjalo nje zinamandla wokuvikela ukudla kanye neendingo zokudla kwazo. Zivamise ukudla ezinye iinlwani kanye namadzinanazo begodu zidla nengcuba. Zikghona ukuraga nokulandelela isilwani ezifuna ukusibulalwa ngebelo elingaba makhilomitha amasumi asithandathu nge-awara (60 km/hr) nokubalelwa ebangeni elingaba makhilomitha amathathu.

Iinlwani ezifana neeNyathi kanye nePofu, begodu zisuke zibe yingozi khulu epilweni yeempunzi nofana ama-Gemsbok ezivamise ukubungelelwa mhlambi weempisi.

Ukuzala Nokukhulisa

Amadzinyana avamise ukuzalwa kesinye nesinye isikhathi sonyaka. Lokhu kwenzeka ngemva kwesikhathi sekambiso yokumitha esiziinyanga ezintathu ukuya kezine, begodu kuvame bona kuzalwe amadzinyana amabili ngesikhathi esisodwa. Amadzinyana azalwa anesilinganiso sobudisi esima-pounds amathathu. Aragela phambili nokumunya iinyanga ezilisumi nambili ukuya kezilisumi nesithandathu. Amadzinyana la aphila ngokumunya ibisi kunina begodu akatlhogi ukudla ngaleso isikhathi. Zivamise ukukhulisela amadzinyana emigodini esebaleni, kodwana imigodi le ivamise ukunakekelwa ngilezo ezidala nofana mhlambi.

Eziduna zona azidlali nencani indima yokukhulisa, ngeziimbalwa ezinetjhudu ezivumeleka bona zitjhidele eduze nemigodi, begodu lapho kuvamise bona lezo ezisesigabeni sokukhula ezisikazi zithuseleka ngokusahlelwa. Ipisi eduna ivamise ukuba nguyise lamadzinyana womhlambi uwoke.

Ukuziphatha

Zimhlobo weenlwani otjhagala khulu ngobusuku, kuthi emini zilale emahlathini aminyeneko nofana emigodini yeenfarigi zomango. Iimpisi ziinlwani eziphila ngemihlambi begodu zivikela umhlambazo nesifunda sazo keminye imihlambi. Amalunga womhlambi avamise ukuphula isakhiwo somhlambi ngokuthi akhambe ayokwakha eminye imihlambi namanye amalunga weminye imihlambi.

Ihlathululo Ngemitlhalazo

Zinemizwani emine eenyaweni zemuva nezemva, omunye nomunye umzwani unezipho elifitjhani kodwana eliqinileko. Iinyawo zayo eziqinileko zaphambii zitshwaya ukhulu bazo beenyawo zaphambili, ezibonakala zizikhulu kunalezo zemuva. Umhlobo lo wepisi edala (Spotted Hyena) mkhulu kunalowo omdala owaziwa ngeyombala ozotho (Brown Hyena).

Lapho Zitholakala Khona

Zizwana nokuhlala eendaweni ezomileko ze-savanna, ezivulekileko, nalezo ezisiquntu seenkhotha ezingana zulu. Nokho ziyindlala eendaweni zeSewula Afrika ngaphandle kwekabeni ye-savannah kanye ne-Skukuza eKruger kanye ne-Kalahari Gemsbok National Parks, esiFundeni seTlhagwini, kanye neendaweni zetlhagwini yaKwaZulu-Natal.