Umnikelo kaDesmond Tutu Wokuqeda Ubandlululo

Wahlonishwa ngemizamo yakhe

©Eric Miller
Launch of the committee for the defence of democracy, 7th March 1988. Left to right - Frank van de Horst (SACOS), Allan Boesak, Desmond Tutu, Prof. Jakes Gerwel (Rector UWC).
Ngo-1984 uTutu wathola umklomelo weNobel for Peace, waba yilowo wesilisa waseNingizimu Afrika ukwenza kanjalo. Wayehlonishwa ngemizamo yakhe yokuqeda ukubusa okucindezelayo eNingizimu Afrika. Wenza isitatimende somphakathi esinikeza umklomelo wakhe kubantu "abancane" eNingizimu Afrika futhi wabelana ngemali yakhe nomndeni wakhe, abasebenzi baseMkhandlu Wesonto waseNingizimu Afrika kanye nesibonelelo sokubhadela abantu baseNingizimu Afrika ekuthunjweni.

Umphakathi waseNingizimu Afrika ube nomsindo ohlangene lapho ethola umklomelo, abanye begubha abanye ngesikhathi begxeka. Uhulumeni ngokwabo wahlala ethule ngomcimbi. Wabe esekhethwa esikhundleni sokuba nguMbhishobhi waseGoli futhi washiya isikhundla sokuba nguMphathiswa we-United Democratic Front.

Waqhubeka nomsebenzi wakhe ekusakazeni izwi okwakwenzeka eNingizimu Afrika, ukunikeza izixazululo endleleni. E-USA yena noDkt. Allan Boesak bahlangana noSeninkulu u-Edward Kennedy, bememela ukuba bavakashele iNingizimu Afrika babuyele eMkhandlwini wezokuPhepha weZizwe Ezihlangene kanye neCongressal Black Caucus, iNdunankulu yamaBameli kanye neSenate. Uqhubeke ekhuthaza abaholi bezwe ukuba bacindezele uhulumeni waseNingizimu Afrika ngezigwegwe zomnotho.

Ukuzinikela Ekungabikho Nodlame

UTutu wafakazela egameni elitokisini elithunjiwe leqembu eliphikisana nobandlululo, uMkhonto we Sizwe ngo-1984. Waqhubeka wathi uzinikezele ekungabikho kobuvikeli kodwa angaqonda ukuthi kungani abamnyama baseAfrika ngaphansi kokucindezelwa beyosebenzisa ukusebenzisa ubudlova emzabalazweni wabo wenkululeko. Wabiza uhulumeni omhlophe ngobuzenzisi bawo ngokudumisa amaqembu ekululeko ahlomile eYurophu ngenkathi elahla izinhlobo ezifanayo zeqembu eNingizimu Afrika.

Udlame kuleli lizwe laqhubeka landa futhi uTutu wabuzwa ukuba akhulume emingcwabeni eminingi. Phakathi nezintshumayelo zakhe, waqhubeka eshumayela isigijimi sokungabi nabuthakathaka futhi wagxekwa ngabanye ngokwenza kanjalo owamemezela ukuthi ukuthobeka kwakhe kwakuyisivimbela ekukhululweni. I-African National Congress (i-ANC) icela izakhamuzi ukuthi zenze izwe lingabonakali, abatshalizimali bezinye izizwe bavusa ukutshalwa kwezimali kwabo futhi ngo-1985 uPW Botha umemezele isimo sokuphuthuma eNingizimu Afrika.

Ngezingxabano, uTutu wahlala enzima emsebenzini. Uhole imibhikisho, wasekela iNational Initiative for Reconciliation ukubiza isimangalo esifundazweni ukuze ahlanganyele ngosuku lokuthandaza futhi uhlongoze isiteleka ngokumelene nobandlululo. Ukhulume eNhlanganweni Yezizwe Ezihlangene eNew York futhi wahlangana noNdunankulu waseBrithani uMargaret Thatcher ukuba aqhubekisele phambili ukugwetshwa kwezomnotho eNingizimu Afrika.

Ukugqugquzela Imfundo Nezinqumo

©Eric Miller
Archbishop Desmond Tutu in his Cape Town office 13/11/2001.
Ngo-1985 kwakhiwa isikhwama se-Bishop Tutu Scholarship. Inhloso yalo kwakuwukuhlinzekela izifundiso kubantu baseNingizimu Afrika ekuthunjweni. UTutu wema ngokuqinile ngokubaluleka kwemfundo. Emhlanganweni owawuhlelwe yiKomidi leCrisis Parents Crisis Committee, waxwayisa ngezingozi zesizukulwane esingakafundi esingazange sibe namakhono adingekayo ukuze athathe isikhundla esibekiwe ekubambeni ubandlululo eNingizimu Afrika.

Ngo-1986 uTutu wavakashela e-United States futhi ukuba akhuthaze izigwegwe. Wabuye wavakashela eJapane, eChina naseJamica ngesizathu esifanayo. Kamuva ngalolo nyaka wakhethwa uMbhishobhi Omkhulu waseKapa ngaphambi kokuba abe ngumengameli we-All Africa Conference of Churches.

Ukuxazulula ingxabano

UTutu, kanye nabanye abaholi besonto, waba umlamuleli wezingxabano phakathi kwabaphikisi namaphoyisa. Bahlukanisa ukuhlukunyezwa e-Alexandra Township ngo-1986 nasemngcwabeni ka-Ashley Kriel ngo-1987 phakathi kwezinye izigameko. Lapho uhulumeni evimbela izinhlangano ezingu-17 ngo-1988, bahlela umashi wombhikisho, owawuvinjelwe. Ephendula, bamisa iKomiti Yezokuvikelwa Kwentando yeningi futhi lapho iminyango yabo ivinjelwe bayifaka esikhundleni senkonzo eSt George's Cathedral.

UTutu wathatha umlandu we-Sharpeville Six ngo-1988. Leli qembu lagwetshwa ukufa kanti uTutu, ophikisana nesijeziso esikhulu, waphoqeleka uPW Botha ukuba alondoloze ukuphila kwabo. Uhlangane noBotha yena nalabo ababili abahlukunyezwa ngaphambi kweTutu baphumelela. Imisho ye-Sharpeville Six ishintshiwe. Ephendula ukungahloniphi kukaTutu, uhulumeni wakhetha umkhankaso, wasakaza ama-anti-Tutu amaflaya nezinsimbi, akhokhela ababhikishi ngisho nokuhlukumeza umkakhe.

Translated by Nsika Khoza