Inxaxheba ka Desmond Tutu eku Bhangiseni uCalulo

Wawongelwa Iinzame Zakhe

©Eric Miller
Launch of the committee for the defence of democracy, 7th March 1988. Left to right - Frank van de Horst (SACOS), Allan Boesak, Desmond Tutu, Prof. Jakes Gerwel (Rector UWC).
Ngomnyaka ka 1984 uTutu waphumelela iNobel Prize for Peace, waba ngummi wesibini wase Mzantsi Afrika ukwenza njalo. Wayewongelwa iinzame zakhe zokubhangisa umthetho wocinezelo kwilizwe loMzantsi Afrika. Wenza intetho yoluntu, enikela eli wonga “kubantu abancinci” eMzantsi Afrika. Wabelana nemali eyayihamba neli wonga kunye nosapho lwakhe, abasebenzi be South African Church Council enye wayifaka kwingxowa mali yenkxaso mali enikwa abame base Mzantsi Afrika abaselubhacweni.

Uluntu lwase Mzantsi Afrika, lwalunembono ezahlukeneyo ekufumaneni kwakhe eliwonga. Bambi babebhiyoza bevuyisana naye logama abanye begxeka. Uhrulumente yena buqu wabayinkukhu esikwe umlomo ngesi siganeko. Ethubeni wonyulwa njengo Bishop wase Johannesburg waze walahla kwisikhundla sakhe njenge Patron yombutho we United Democratic Front.

Waqhubeleka nomsebenzi wakhe wokudumisa ngokwenzekayo eMzantsi Afrika, enika nezisombululo. Kwilizwe lase Melika yena kunye no Dr. Allan Boesak bahlala intlanganiso kunye no Senator Edward Kennedy, bemmema ukuba atyelele uMzantsi Afrika. Benza nentetho kwi United Nations Security Council kwakunye ne Congressional Black Caucus, House of Representatives and the Senate. Waqhubeka nokukhuthaza iinkokheli zehlabathi ukuba zifake uxinzelelo kuhrulumente wase Mzantsi Afrika ngokungaxhasi kwezoshishino nezezimali (economic sanctions).

Wazinikela Ekungasebenzisini Ubundlobongela

uTutu wathethelela iqela elalivalelwe nelalisilwa ucalulo, uMkhonto we Sizwe ngomnyaka ka 1984. Wayemile kwelokuba uzinikele ekungasebenzisini ubundlobongela, kodwa wayekuqonda ukuba kutheni abantu abamnyama abaphantsi kocinzelelo bekhethe ukusebenzisa ubundlobongela kumzabalazo wabo wokulwela inkululeko. Watsho egxeka nohrulumente omhlophe ngokuba ngamamenemene, kuba encoma amaqela alwela inkululeko eEurope ngokusebenzisa izixhobo, logama egweba amaqela enza oko eMzantsi Afrika.

Ubundlobongela kweli lizwe baqhubeka nokunyuka kwaye uTutu wayecelwa ukuba athethe kwizingcwabo ezininzi. Ngethuba esenza iintshumayelo, wayeqhubeka nokushumayela umyalezo wokungasetyenziswa kobundlobongela. Bambi babegxeka ngoko, ngelithi ukungafuni kwakhe ubundlobongela kwakungumqomo endleleni yenkululeko. Umbutho we The African National Congress (ANC) wamemelela abemi ukuba benze ilizwe linga lawuleki. Abatyali zimali bamazwe angaphandle baya ngokuhroxa ekutyaleni imali. Ngomnyaka ka 1985, uPW Botha wabhengeza uMzantsi Afrika njengokwi simi esingxamisekileyo (state of emergency).

Kulo lonke ologquthe, uTutu waqhubeka nokusebenza. Wakhokhela uqhankqalazo, waxhasa nekhwelo le National Initiative for Reconciliation lokuba ilizwe lonke liqhankqalaze. Baze babeka nosuku lokuthandaza baze bahlela nokuqhankqalazela ukubhangiswa kocalu-calulo. Wenza intetho eUnited Nations General Assembly eNew York waze wahlangana Prime Minister yase Britain uMargaret Thatcher ukugxininisa isicelo sokufakwa kweeeconomic sanctions eMzantsi Afrika.

Ukukhuthaza Imfundo Kunye nee Sanction

©Eric Miller
Archbishop Desmond Tutu in his Cape Town office 13/11/2001.
Ngomnyaka ka 1985 kwasekwa iBishop Tutu Scholarship Fund. Injongo yase Scholarship yayikukunika inkxaso mali yokufunda kubemi boMzantsi Afrika abaselubhacweni. uTutu wayengagungqi ekukhuthazeni ukubaluleka kwemfundo. Kwi nkomfa eyayiququzelelwe yi Soweto Parents Crisis Committee, walumkisa ngeengozi zesizukulwana esingafundanga. Nesingazukubanazakhono zidingekayo ukuze sifumane izikhundla ezibalulekileyo kuMzantsi Afrika omtsha emva kokubhukuqwa korhulumente wocinezelo. Ngomnyaka ka 1986 uTutu watyelela eMelika kwakhona ukukhuthaza iisanction. Watyelela namazwe ase Japan, China kunye nase Jamaica ngesi sizathu sinye. Ekupheleni kwalonyaka wonyulwa ngenge Archbishop yase Kapa ngaphambi kokuba abe ngumongameli we All Africa Conference of Churches.

Ukusombulula Ingxushu-ngxushu

Lo ka Tutu, kunye nezinye iinkokheli zeecawe bancedisa ekusombululeni ingxushu-ngxushu phakathi kwabaqhankqalazi kunye namapolisa. Bathomalalisa imisindo kwilokisji yase Alexandra ngomnyaka ka 1986. Baphinda nakwisingcwabo sika Ashley Kriel ngomnyaka ka 1987 ukukhankatha nje iziganeko ezimbalwa. Ngethuba uhrulumente eval imibutho eli 17 ngomnyaka ka 1988, baququzelela imatshi yoqhankqalazo, neyathi yavalwa yona kuqala.

Ukubuyisa koku, baseka ikomiti abayibiza nge Committee for the Defense of Democracy baze bathi zisakuvalwa iirali zabo, babamba inkonzo kwicawe yase St George’s Cathedral. uTutu wathathela kuye umsebenzi we Sharpeville Six ngomnyaka ka 1988. Eli qela lalinikwe isigwebo sentambo, waze uTutu ekungahambisanini kwakhe nesi sigwebo, wafaka uxinzelelo ku PW Botha ukuba asindise ubombi besi sithandathu. Wahlala intlanganiso no Botha ubuqu, esi sibini sangquzulana ngaphambi kokuba uPW Botha avume ukubayeka baphile.

Izigwebo zesi sithandathu nesasibizwa nge Sharpeville Six, saxhonywa. Ngelinge lokumvala umlomo, urhulumente wasasaza amaphepha awa lo ka Tutu, benyoba nabaqhankqalazi bekwa hlukumeza nenkosikazi yakhe.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana