Indima Eyadlalwa nguDesmond Tutu Ekuqedeni Urhulumende Wegandelelo

Uhlonitjhelwa Imizamo Yakhe

©Eric Miller
Ngonyaka ka-1984 uTutu wathumba ungongorwana we-Nobel Prize for Peace, waba mumuntu we Sewula Africa wokuthoma ukwenza njalo. Wahlonitjhwa ngemizamo yakhe yokuqeda imithetho ebegade igandelela yeSewula Africa. Wathula ikulumo emphakathini sokobana unongorwana wakhe uwunikela emphakathini, “ebantwini abancani be” Sewula Africa begodu wabelana ngemali ayitholako nomndenakhe, abasebenzi behlangano ye-South African Church Council kanye neskhwama somfundaze wabantu beSewula Africa ababaphalali. Umphakathi weSewula Africa waba nemibono engafaniko ngezenzo zakhe ngemva kokuthola unongorwana lo, abanye bagidinga lokha abanye bagceka. Urhulumende ngokwawo wazithulela ngomnyanya lo. Ngemva kwalokho wakhethwa wabambhitjhobhi weJwanisbhege, wasula eskhundleni sokuba yi-patron yehlangano ye-United Democratic Front.

Waragela phambili ngomsebenzakhe wokurhatjha izwi lezinto ekhabe zenzeka eSewula Africa, abanikeza nepengu yokurarulula imiraro. Enarheni ye-USA yena kanye noDorhodere u-Allan Boesak bahalangana no-Senator Edward Kennedy, bamumema kobana azokukweriyela iSewula Africa wakhuluma nakukhokhasi ye-United Nations Security Council kanye ne- Congressional Black Caucus, House of Representatives kanye ne-Senate. Waragela phambili wabawa abadosi phambili benarha kobana bagandelele urhulumende weSewula Africa ngokuwujezisa ngezemmali.

Uzinikeze Ngokungasebenzisi Indluzula

UTutu wapha ubufakazi ajamele iwoma labantu egade balwisana norhulumende wegandelelo elibotjhiweko, Umkhonto we Sizwe wonyaka ka-1984. Wakhuluma bona uzibophelele ekungasebenzisini indluzula kodwana akazwisisi kobana kungebanga lani abantu abanzima beAfrica abangaphasi kwegandelelo bakhetha kobana basebenzise indluzula lokha nabalwela ukuthola itjhaphuluko. Wabawa urhulumende wamakhuwa kobana alise ukukwakwazela iwoma labalweli betjhaphuluko abase Europe lokha bangafunda bona iwoma elinjalo leSewula Africa lenze okufanako.

Umguruguru enarheni le waragela phambili wakhwela intaba, uTutu wabawa ukukhuluma emigcwabeni eminengi. Lokha nakakhuluma njalo, waragela phambili ukutjhumayela imilayezo yokobana kungabi nemiguruguru, begodu wasola khulu abanye ngokwenza njalo egade bathi ukuziphatha kwakhe okunjalo kusiqabo setjhaphuluko. Ihlangano ye-African National Congress (ANC) yabawa abahlali kobana benza inarha le kobana ingabuseki, abaphalali, abatjali bemmali abanengi bathatha iimali zabo abazitjalileko begodu kwathi ngonyaka ka-1985 U PW Botha wamemezela kobana iSewula Africa ingaphasi kwe-state of emergency.

Ngehlangahlangano leyo, uTutu gade asolokho asebenza, adosa phambili imitjhagalo, asekela i-National Initiative for Reconciliation lokha nayibiza umtjhagalo wenarha yoke, kobana ungenele umthandazo nokobana kwenziwe umtjhagalo wokubawa kobana kuqedwe ibandlululo. Wakhuluma nehlangano ye-United Nations General Assembly enge-New York wahlangan noMinista weBritheyini, uMargaret Thatcher ambawa bona ajezise iSewula Africa ngokuyidima imali godu.

Ugcugcuzela iFundo kanye Nenjeziso

©Eric Miller
Ngonyaka ka-1985 umbhitjhobhi uTutu watlama umfundaze obizwa kobana yi-Bishop Tutu Scholarship Fund. Umncopho wawo kwakukupha abantu ababaleke eSewula Africa umfundaze. UTutu wajama rwe ngokuqakatheka kwefundo. Ekhomferentjini ehlelwe babelethi i-Soweto Parents Crisis Committee, wayelelisa ngobungozi besizukulwani esingakafundi engeze sabanamarhono atlhogakalako wokuthatha iinkhundla eziqakathekileko lokha nasele urhulumende wegandelelo angasabusa eSewula Africa.

Ngonyaka ka-1986 wakweriyela e-United States wayobabawa godu kobana bajezise iSewula Africa. Wakweriyela ne-Japan, China kanye neJamaica ngebanga elifanako. Lada ngonyaka loyo wakhethelwa isikhundla sokuba ngu-Archbishop weKapa ngaphambi kokobana abe nguMongameli we- All Africa Conference of Churches.

Umlamuli Wepi

UTutu nabanye abadosi phambili bamakerege, baphenduka abakhulumisana hlangana kwabatjhagali kanye namapholisa. Lokhu kwaceda imiguruguru esgoga se-Alexandra ngonyanka ka-1989 emngcwabeni ka-Ashley Kriel ngonyaka ka-1987 hlangana kwezinye izinto Lokha urhulumende adingisa iinhlangano eziyi-17 ngonyaka ka-1988, bahlela umtjhagalo, owadingiswako nawo. Baziphendulela ngokobana atlame ikomidi ye-Defense of Democracy kwathi lokha nabadingisa amarali wabo bawajamiselela ngokobana babambe ikonzo e-St George’s Cathedral.

Basekela abantu abagwetjelwe ukuzibandakanya emguugurwini we-Sharpville, ababizwa bona yi-Sharpville Six ngonyaka ka-1988. Iwomeli gade ligwetjelwe ukufa kanye noTutu lokha nakalwela kobana bagwetjwe njalo, wafaka igandelelo ku PW Botha kobana angababulali. Wahlangana naye ababilaba khange bazwane ngaphambi kokobana uTutu aphumelele ekwenzeni lokho. Isgwebo sabantu egade babizwa bona yi-Sharpville Six saphungulwa. Ngebanga lokungalaleli kwakaTutu, urhulumende wahlela ikhampeyini lapha bekarhatjha khona ama-flyer kanye nama-sticker wokungakhambelani noTutu, lapha urhulumende gade abhadala abatjhagali atlhorisa nomfazakhe.

Translated by Busisiwe Skhosana