Uhlanga LwaBasotho Base Mzantsi Afrika

© Dr Peter Magubane

Imbali

Abemmi bokuqala belizwe elibizwa nge Lesotho namhlanje, kukholeleka ukuba yayinga Bathwa (San), nabathi bashiya inkcubeko ngemizobo esemadongeni emiqolomba. Abantu bokuqala abathetha ulwimi lwaBantu yayingamaqela amathathu ohlanga lwabeNguni, ama Phatla, Polane, kunye nam Phuthi. La maqela anqumla eDrakensberg ukusuka empuma aze aya kuzinza kwingingqi ezisesigingqini zase mzantsi-ntshona womlambo iMohokare (Caledon).

Pha malunga nasekupheleni kwe sentyuri 17, kwalandela ubukhosi bama Sotho, amaPeli, Phuthing, Sia kunye nama Tlokoa, eza kule ngingqi esuka emntla-mpuma. Emva kwabo kwafika namanye amaqela aBasotho, aquka ama Koena, Fokeng kunye nama Taung.

Ekuqaleni kweminyaka ye sentyuri 19, ngethuba uShaka esandisa ubukhosi bakhe. BamaZulu, kwaye kwabakho ukungazinzi kulo lonke elomzantsi welizwekwazi lase Afrika, nelalikade lizolile. AbaSotho ezintabeni kunye nase mathafeni asentshona elizwe elaziwa nge Lesotho namhlanje (Yayiyi Basutoland ngamaxesha ocinezelo) kunye nakwindawo ezisempuma kwephondo lase Free State nabo baye bachaphazeleka. Ukulwa nokruthwano yaba yinto exhaphakileyo, izindlu zobukhosi zadilika, iintsimi zatshatyalaliswa, abantu bathwaxwa yindlala. Abantu babhenela ekutyeni inyama yabanye abantu.

Ilifa Lika Moshoeshoe

uMoshoeshoe, inkosi yamaKoena, wasebenzisa amaqhinga omkhosi wamajoni kunye nezakhono zepolitiki ukoyisa iintshaba zakhe. Waqokelela iqela labalandeli, abasuka kwiintshaba zakhe ezoyisiweyo kunye nabo babebhace kwiimfazwe kumakhaya abo. Aba balandeli yaba ngabaxhasi bakhe abathembekileyo bobukhosi bakhe obukhulayo, oko ke yaba kukuqala kwe Lesotho. Lo ka Moshoeshoe weza nobuchule bokukhusela abantu bakhe kwiintaba ezingafikelelekiyo ezinemiphezulu emtyaba. Kwezi ntaba babenoku zikhusela kwaye balindele imikhosi eze kuhlasela kule ngingqi. Waqala wasebenzisa intaba ebizwa nge Butha Buthe ekufutshane nedolophu ebizwa kwangeligama. Ethubeni wasebenzisa intaba enkulu ukodlula le, nebizwa nge Thaba Bosiu, esempuma kwase Maseru.

Esebenzisa le ntaba njengedwala lakhe lokuzimela nokuhlasela, wabumba amadoda akhe ukuba omelele. Aye betha aze agxothe kwanto izama ukuza kuchitha chitha lo mmandla. Kwathi kuba ngumnyaka ka 1831 wayeyinkokheli engathandabuzekiyo nengoyiswayo yesizwe saBasotho, kwingingqi eyayinwenwela kwimida yelizwe elaziwa nge Lesotho namhlanje. Indawo yase Rolong ukuya entshona, eTaung ukuya entshona kunye nase Tlokoa ukuya entshona kwendawo eyayilawulwa ngu Moshoeshoe, yaba ziindawo ezisebenzisanayo. uMoshoeshoe wayeyinkokheli ehlikihlileyo nenenkqubela phambili, nobonwa njengenye yezona nkokheli ziphala phambili kwilizwekazi lase Afrika.

Ngobulumko, umonde kunye nesakhono senyameko, wabumba isiseko esifanayo sezithethe kunye nokuthembeka kweze politiko kuba landeli bakhe. Waye wathabatha nendlela zasentshona ngendlela apha engazukuphazamisana namasiko nezithethe zohlanga lwaBasotho. Ukusukela ekuqaleni kweminyaka ye sentyuri 19, abashishini, abazingeli kunye nabahambi babedlula kumhlaba ka Moshoeshoe ngobuninzi. Waye waqaphela ukuba njengokuba inani labamhlophe lisiya likhula, amathuba ongquzulwano azakwanda nawo.

Waye waqaphela nesidingo sokuba abantu bakhe bafumane imfundo yase ntshona ukuze bakwazi ukukhuphisana babe negalelo nakwihlabathi elitsha. Wathumela abanye boonyana bakhe kwisikolo esise Kapa. Wamema iSosayethu ebizwe nge Paris Evangelical Missionary Society ukuba ize kuseka isikolo se mishini kwelase Basutoland. Kwaye uMessrs Arbousset, Casalis kunye no Gosselin bazinza kwindawo yase Morija, kufuphi nase Thaba Bosiu, ngo Juni ka 1833. Njengokuba inani labemi abamhlophe (amabhulu) lisiya likhula, lamabhulu aqalisa ukulima iintsimi kwimimandla echumileyo yasentshona kwase Mohokare. Uxinzelelo lomhlaba lwaya lukhula nalo.

Kwakhiwa ubuhlobo obutsha beze politiki kwaye kwaxhaphaka nokubelwana kweemfuyo phakathi kwamaBhulu kunye namaBhulu.

A Sense of Nation

uMoshoeshoe wacela uncedo lwe ‘kumkanikazi emhlophe yamaNgesi’, uKumkanikazi Victoria, ukuze amnike ukhuseleko kulamaBhulu. Olu khuseleko walunikwa ngomnyaka ka 1848, waze nommi wase Ngilani oyi British Resident Commissioner wabekwa kulommandla. Emva kweminyaka nje emithandathu wasuswa kwesi sihlalo ngethuba iBasutoland yabekwa phantsi kolawulo lwe Cape Colony. Kwinkxalabo yakhe kwakhona yokugrogriswa ngamaBhulu, lo ka Moshoeshoe waphinda wacela ukhuseleko lwamaNgesi.

Ngomnyaka ka 1868 iBasutoland yayisele idume njenge lawulwa ngamaNgesi kwaye aBasotho bahaMoshoeshoe (abantu baka Kumkani Moshoeshoe) babaphantsi kolawulo lwamaNgesi. Ngomnyaka ka 1870 le Kumkani yaBasotho yalandulela eli sele iyinkonde egugileyo. Wayexolile kulwazi lokuba abantu bakhe ‘basezandleni ezifudumeleyo zeKumkanikazi’. Ilifa awalishiyela abantu bakhe lokumanyanisa uhlanga lwaBasotho lwase Lesotho alinakuze lithelekiswe nanto. Ngokudala kwakhe isithethe esinye nemvano, wanika aBasotho ukuzingca ngobuzwe babo, kunye namandla okuzimela kwiintshaba zabo.

Nangona aBasotho baka Moshoeshoe babekhe bahlaselwe ziintlanga zamaZulu, Matabele, amaBhulu kunye namaNgesi, abazange boyiswa emfazweni. Emva kokubhubha kwakhe, oonyana bakhe baqhubeka nokomeleza umzi wasebukhosini. Kude kube namhlanje izizukulwana zakhe, nekukuphela kweendlalifa zesikhundla sobukhosi, zizinkosi kubunintsi beengingqi zelizwe lase Lesotho kunye nakwindawo ezise bumelwaneni ezifana ne Matatiele ekwiphondo leNtshona Koloni eMzantsi Afrika. Ikumkani ekhoyo ngoku ngu Kumkani Letsie III nowabekwa esihlalweni ngomnyaka ka 1997.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana