ABasotho eNingizimu Afrika

© Dr Peter Magubane

Umlando

Izakhamuzi zokuqala zeLesotho lamuhla cishe zaziyiSan, eyashiya ifa elihlala njalo emidwebeni emasongweni omhume. Abantu bokuqala be-Bantu babe namaqembu amathathu e-Nguni, iPhatla, Polane, nePhuthi, abawela iDrakensberg empumalanga ngamagagasi amathathu futhi bahlala ezindaweni eziphansi eningizimu-mpumalanga yoMfula uMokarekare (Caledon). Ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-17, izikhulu zeSotho zalandelwa, i-Peli, Phuthing, iSia neTlokoa eza endaweni kusukela enyakatho-ntshonalanga. Emva kwabo kwafika amanye amaqembu aseSuthu, kuhlanganise noKoena, Fokeng noTaung.

Ngasekuqaleni kwekhulu le-19 lapho uShaka ekhulisa umbuso wakhe weZulu, amaqhubu okuhlukunyezwa kwezenhlalakahle awela ngaphesheya kwesinye izwe. Abantu baseSuthu ezintabeni nasezintabeni ezisentshonalanga zeLesotho namuhla (iBasololand ngezikhathi zobukhosi) nasezingxenyeni ezisempumalanga yeFree State yanamuhla nazo zathinteka. Ukulwa kwaba yinto ejwayelekile, izinduna zaqhekeka, izinsimu zabhujiswa, kwadlala indlala futhi abantu ababikwa ukuthi baye basebenzisa ubuhlanga.

Ifa leMoshoeshoe

UMoshoeshoe, oyinhloko yeKoena, wasebenzisa isu lempi kanye nekhono lezombusazwe ukuze anqobe izitha zakhe. Wabutha iqembu elikhulayo labalandeli, bobabili phakathi kwezitha zakhe ezithintekile kanye nalabo ababalekela ukuphazanyiswa, ababa ngabasekeli abaqotho kanye namalungu aphelele enduneni yakhe ekhulayo eyayiyi-kernel yalokho eyaba eLesotho. UMoshoeshoe walungisa le ndlela yokuhoxisa abantu bakhe ezintabeni ezingenakufinyeleleka ezintabeni ezivela phansi lapho zingakwazi ukuzivikela khona futhi zilinde ukuhlaselwa kwamabutho aphangi ahlasele indawo, efuna abantu ukuba baphange. Uqale wasebenzisa intaba ebizwa ngokuthi i-Butha Buthe eduze kwedolobha lanamuhla legama elifanayo. Kamuva wathatha intaba enkulu kakhulu, iThaba Bosiu, empumalanga yeMaseru.

Nalokhu njengesiphephelo sakhe, wabumba amadoda akhe abe yinto eqinile, eshaya labo abazama ukuhlasela lesi sifundazwe. Ngo-1831 wayengumbusi ongamangalelwa wesizwe esisha esasungulwa isiSasotho endaweni enwetshiwe kahle entshonalanga yamaphethelo aseLesotho. I-Rolong ngasentshonalanga, i-Taung eningizimu neTlokoa empumalanga ye-Moshoeshoe ngokushesha yethonya layo lahlala lizimele ezizimele.

UMoshoeshoe wayengumholi okhanyisiwe, oqhubekayo obhekwa njengomunye we-Afrika omkhulu abaholi bamazwe. Ngokuhlakanipha, ukubekezela nokukholisa okuhlakaniphile, wadala isisekelo esijwayelekile samasiko nobuqotho bezombangazwe kubalandeli bakhe. Wazama ukwakha ikoloni ngokuzivumelanisa

Basotho imikhuba yezenhlalo namasiko ngaphandle kokubhubhisa. Kusukela ekuqaleni kweze-1900 abadayisi, abazingeli nabahamba ngezinyathelo badlula emkhakheni wezandla zikaMoshoeshoe ekukhuleni izinombolo. Wabona ukuthi, njengoba izinombolo zamakholoni zakhula, ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukuthi ingxabano ingakhuphuka. Ebona isidingo sokuba abantu bakhe bathole imfundo yaseNtshonalanga ukuba bancintisane ezweni elisha, wathumela amanye amadodana akhe esikoleni eKapa. Wamema iParis Evangelical Missionary Society ukuthi imise isiteshi sezemishini eBasutoland, futhi uMarrs Arbousset, uCasalis noGosselin bahlala eMorija, ngaseThaba Bosiu, ngoJuni 1833. Njengoba inani elikhulayo labahlali abamhlophe (iBoers) baqala ukusungula amapulazi ngaphezulu indawo ecebile entshonalanga yeMohokare, ukucindezelwa komhlaba kwaqhubeka. Kwaqalwa imibuso emisha yezombusazwe futhi ukuhlukunyezwa kwempahla phakathi kweBoers neBasotho kwaba yindawo evamile.

Isizwe Esibambene

UMoshoeshoe ucele usizo lo 'ndlovukazikazi omhlophe waseNgilandi', iNdlovukazi uVictoria Victoria, ecela ukuvikelwa eBoers. Lokhu kwavunyelwa ngo-1848, kanti iBritish Resident Commissioner yayisensimini. Eminyakeni eyisithupha nje kamuva yena waxoshwa lapho iBusutoland ihlanganiswe eCape Colony Moshoeshoe, eyayithinteka yiBoer, yaphinde yafuna ukuvikelwa kweBrithani. Ngo-1868 iBusutoland yamemezelwa insimu yaseBritish, kanti abantu baseBasotho baHososeshoe (abantu baseKhosi Moshoeshoe) baba izikhonzi zaseBrithani. Ngo-1870, inkosi yaseBasotho yafa, inolwazi lokuthi abantu bakhe 'baboshelwe ezandleni zeNdlovukazi'. Ifa lakhe elihlala njalo laliyisimiso sakhe esingenakulinganiswa ngokuhlanganisa kwakhe abantu baseSasotho eLesotho. Njengoba kwakhiwa isiko elivamile, wanikeza abaseBasotho umuzwa wesizwe, namandla okuma izitha zabo.

Nakuba ngezinye izikhathi ama-Basotho kaMoshoeshoe ahlaselwe yiZulu, Matabele, Boer naseBrithon, awazange anqobe empini. Ngemva kokufa kwakhe, amadodana akhe aqhubeka eqinisa indlu yobukhosi. Kuze kube yilolu suku, inzalo yakhe, izindlalifa kuphela esihlalweni sobukhosi saseBasotho, yizinduna eziningi eLesotho nasezindaweni ezizungezile ezifana noMatatiele e-Eastern Cape. Inkosi yamanje yiNkosi Letsie Ill eyakhishwa ngo-1997.

Translated by Nsika Khoza