Bantfu be Basotho base Ningizimu Afrika

© Dr Peter Magubane

Umlandvo

Emakhaya ekucala anamuhla ase Lesotho kwaba ngema San, lashiya tindzawo letindzala ngabo pende kumadvonga emadvwala. Labebakhuluma-iBantu bekucala kwabangemacembu lamatsatfu ebeNguni, ngema Phatla, emaPolane, nema Phuthi, lakeca iDrakensberg kusuka emphumalanga ngetindlela letintsatfu ase ahlala etindzaweni-letiphansi emphumalanga-leseningizimu yase Mohokare (Caledon) River. Ngase kupheleni kwesikhatsi sandvulo selishumi nesikhombisa, imiphakatsi yebe Sotho yalandzela, ema Peli Phuthing, iSia ne Tlokoa lekufikela endzaweni lesa enyakatfo-nshona. Ngemuva kwabo kwefika lamanye emacembu ebeSotho, kufaka ekhatsi ba Koena, baFokeng nebaTaung.

Ekucaleni kwesikhatsi sandvulo ngesikhatsi Shaka akhulisa indzawo yakhe yemaZulu, tinkhulumo letingakalungi tatsanyelwa tengcela sigodzi lesincane. Bantfu bemaSotho etintsabeni kanye nasetindzaweni letinkhulu tase nshonalanga letikhona-nalamuhla eLesotho (iBasutoland ngetikhatsi temakholonisi) kanye nasetincenyene letise mphumalanga elangeni-elangeni lalamuhla iFree State nato tatsintseka. Kulwa kwaba yintfo lejwayelekile, imiphakatsi yehlukana ekhatsi, emasimu abulawa, imindeni yehlukana ekhatsi kwatsi bantfu labadzingile bapotwa kutsi badla bantfu labanye.

Lifa la Moshoeshoe

Moshoeshoe, sikhulu se Koena, wasebentisa indlela yemasotja kanye nelwati lwepolitiki kwehlulekisa titsa takhe. Wacokelela ibhendi yebalandzeli, yomibili kusuka labo labahlula labatitsa nalabo labandizisa lokungavani, lababayincenye yebalandzeli bakkhe kanye nemalunga lagcwele ekukhula kwemphakatsi wakhe lowawuyintfo lelula ngekhatsi lekwaba yi Lesotho. Moshoeshoe walungisa lendlela yekususa bantfu bakhe abayise etintsabeni letisetulu letingenalutfo kwaba kusuka lapho kutsi bakhone kutivikela phindze bamele kuhlaselwa ngemasotja lebekagcwala lendzawo, bafune bantfu labatabeba ngenkhani. Wacale wasebentisa intsaba lebitwa nge Butha Buthe lesedvute nelidolobha lelikhonanyalo leligama lelifanako. Kwatsi muva watsatsa intsaba lenkhulu, iThaba Bosiu, lese mphumalanga yase Maseru.

Ngaloku njengentfo lenemandla, wakha emadvodza akhe abangemasotja lacinile, lashaya labo labetama kungena esikhaleni noma esigodzini sabo. Ngemnyaka wa 1831 wanikwa umtsetfo wBasotho lensha leyakhekile yesive seBasotho endzaweni lechubeka kahle emagedeni lakhona nalamuhla enshonalangga yase Lesotho. Le Rolong lesenshonalanga, iTaung leseningizimu ne Tlokoa lese mphumalanga yendzawo ya Moshoeshoe lesele iyindzawo lekhululekile.

Moshoeshoe abengumholi lokhanyisekelekile, lophumelelako lotsatfwa njengamunye lomkhulu eAfrika kumadvodza laphetse. Ngekuhlakanipha kwakhe, kubeketela kanye nekufoselela ngekuhlakanipha, wakha indlela yelisiko kanye neyepolitiki entela balandzeli bakhe. Abentela kufaka emakholonisi ngekufaka imimango yeBasotho kanye nemasiko abo ngaphandle kwekuwabulala. Ekucaleni kwesikhatsi sandvulo selishumi nemfica batsengisi, batingeli kay enema trekkers engca endzaweni ya Moshoeshoe endlela yekugucula ngekukhulisa inombolo. Wakubona loko, njengoba inombolo yemakholonisi beyikhula, ngako litfuba lekucabana litokhula. Ngekubona tidzingo tebantfu bakhe titodzinga imfundvo yaNgaphesheya kutsi bacudzelane emhlabeni lomusha, watfumela lamanye emadvodzana akhe esikolweni eDolobheni lase Kapa. Wacela iMishini yase Paris Evangelical kutsi icale siteshi semishini eBasutoland, nase Messrs Arbousset, iCasalis ne Gosselin lehleti eMorija, dvute ne Thaba Bosiu, ngenyanga yeNhlaba ngemnyaka wa 1833. Ngekukhulisa tinombolo tebahlali labamhlophe (eMabhunu) acala kusungula emafamu etindzaweni lebetivundzile kahle etigodzini letise nshonalanga ye Mohokare, kucindzeteleka ngendzawo kwakhula. Emaphathi epolitiki akhiwa kanye nekungenelwa emkhatsini kweMabhunu kanye Basotho kwaba yintfo leyatiwako.

Kuvela kwe Sive

Moshoeshoe walungisa kuncedza kwe ‘ndlovukati yeMangisi lamhlophe’ Indlovukati Victoria, balungiselela kuvikelwa kumaBhunu. Loku kwanikwa ngemnyaka wa 1848, kantsi Nendzawo ya Khomishane wema British lowabekwa kulendzawo. Kwatsi ngemnyaka wesitsatfu ekupheleni wasuswa ngesikhatsi iBasutoland leyahlanganiswa ku Licembu lase Kapa la Moshoeshoe, ngekungakhululeki ngekufungelwa ngemaBhunu, phindze lungisa kuvikeleka kwema British. Ngemnyaka wa 1868 iBasutoland kwatsiwa yindzawo yema British, kwatsi le Basotho bahaMoshoeshoe (bantfu beNkhosi Moshoeshoe) babatintfo tema British. Ngemnyaka wa 1870 lenkhosi lebeseyiyindzala ye Basotho yashona, lokutfwelwe kulolwati kutsi bantfu bakhe ‘babegoceke emikhonweni yalendlovukati’. Lifa lakhe lengunakaphakade kwaba yintfo levetwako ngekuhlanganisa kwakhe bantfu base Lesotho. Ngekwakha lisiko lelatiwako, wanika iBasotho kuvela kwesive, emandla ekuma abhekane netitsa tabo.

Noma nje ngaletinye tikhatsi Moshoeshoe weBasotho abehlaselwa ngemaZulu, eMatebele, eMabhunu kanye nema Briton, abazange sebahlulwe imphini. Ngemuva kwekushona kwakhe, bantfwana lababafana bakhe bachubeka kucinisa lendlu yebukhosi. Kuzekubengunamuhla bantfwabakhe, lekungubona batindlalifa esicongweni seBasotho, batikhulu eliningini le Lesotho kanye netindzawo letibomakhelwane kufana ne Matatiele lese Eastern Cape. Inkhosi lekhona namuhla yi Nkhosi Letsie Wesitsatfu lowabekwa ngemnyaka wa 1997.

Translated by Phindile Malotana