Abasotho beSewula -Africa

© Dr Peter Magubane

Umlandwabo

Abahlali bokuthoma benarha eyaziwa ngokobana yiLesotho namhlanje babathwa, abatjhiya amagwalo wabo emabodeni werholo. Abantu bokuthoma egade abazinqhema ezintathu zamaNguni amaPhatla, Polani kanye namaPhuthi, abawelela i-Drakensberg, babuya epumalanga bazinza eendaweni eziphasi zemlanjeni i - Mohokare (Caledon). Ekugcineni kwe-17th century, ubukhosi baBesotho balandela ama- Peli, Phuthing, Sia kanye namaTlokoa abuya enarheni ye-North west. Ngemva kwabo kweza iinqhema zabeSotho, ekubalwa hlangana ama-Koena, Fokeng kanye nama-Taung.

Ekuthomeni kwe-19th century lokha uShaka, nakakhulisa ubukhosi bamaZulu, kwabanehlangano hlangano enarheni ekhabe ithulile. Abesotho eentabeni kanye nendundumeni ezisepumalanga lapha sele  kubizwa bona seLesotho ,ngesikhathi samakholoni bekubizwa bona se-Basutoland kanye nencenyeni ezisepumalanga zesifunda esele sibizwa bona se-Free State kwanje nazo zangameka. Ukulwa kwaba yinto ejwayelekileko,ubukhosi baphuka,amasimu oniwa, imindeni yahlukana, abantu abantu ekhabe baphelelwe lithemba kuthiwa khabe sele badlana.

Ilifa lakaMoshoeshoe

UMoshoeshoe, ikosi yama-Koena, wasebenzisa iindlela zobujoni kanye nerhono lakhe lezepolotiki ukulwa namanaba. Wahlanganisa abalandeli ekhabe inani labo likhula ngamalnaga, kokubili hlangana kwamanaba ahluliweko kanye nalabo ekhabe babalekela umonakalo, ebatjhuguluka baba balandeli bakhe kanye namalunga apheleleko wobukhosi bakhe ekhabe bukhula, ebabe buyimbewu yenarha eyaba yiLesotho. UMoshoeshoe khabe anerhono lokudosela abantu bakhe endaweni ekhabe kungafikeki kiyo ephezu kwentaba, lapha khabe barhona ukuzilwela khona ngokobana balinde amanaba ekhabe abahlasela endaweni yabo, afuna Bantu azobalimaza. Wathoma ngokusebenzisa intaba ebizwa kobana yiButha Buthe eduze kwedorobha elibizwa ngebizwelo nje. Lada wathatha intaba ekuhlwana kunaleyo, iThaba Bosiu, esepumalanga yeMaseru.

Ngokusebenzisa yona, wabumba amadodakhe abamajoni angahlulwako, abetha labo abalinga ukuhlasela ngepi isifunda sakhe. Ngonyaka ka-1831, khabe sele amdosiphambili ongangatjazwako wesitjhaba esitlanywe kabutjha saBasotho enarheni ekhabe irhatjheke yayokufika emigceleni weLesotho. AbaRolong bahlala epumalanga, abaTaung bahlala etjingalanga.

UMoshoeshoe gade ayikosi ezwisisako, nephumelelako ekudlunjanwa kobana ngenye yekosi ekhamba phambili e-Africa. Ngokuhlakanipha kwakhe,isineke kanye nerhono lokurabhela, watlama isiko elifanako begodu wahlonitjhwa balandeli bakhe nangepolotiki.Wamukela i-colonazation ngokobana athathe iindlela zaBasotho zokwenza izinto kanye namasiko ngaphandle kokuzona. Kusukela ekuthomeni kweminyaka yabo-19th century, abarhwebi, abazumi kanye nama-trekkers, badlula endaweni kaMoshoeshoe ngobunengi. Wakubona lokho, kwathi lokha inani nama-colonist nalikhulako, nerhonakalo yakulwa nayo yangezeleleka.

Ngokubona itlhogeko yokobana abantu bakhe bathole ifundo yamakhuwa kobana barhone ukuphalisana nephasi elitjha, wathumela amanye amadodana wakhe kobana aye eskolweni eKapa. Wamema i-Paris Evangelical Missionary Society kobana itlame i-mission station e-Basatoland, Kanye ne-Messrs Arbousset, Casalis ne-Gosselin zazinza e-Morija, eduze kwe-Thaba Bosiu, ngoMgwengweni wonyaka ka-1833. Inani elingezelelweko lamabhuru lathoma ukutlama amaplasi esifundeni esivundileko epumalanga ye-Mohokare, igandeleleko lenarha lanyuka. Iinhlangano ezitja zepolotiki zatlanywa, ukuhlaselana hlangana kwaBasotho kanye namaBhuru bebelane ifuyo kwaba yinto evamileko.

Isitjhaba Esibumbeneko

UMoshoeshoe wabawa irhalebho lamakhuwa wamaNgisi weNdlovukazi u-Queen Victoria, abawa kobana arhelejwe ngokobana bamvikele amabhurwini. Lokhu kwenzeka ngonyaka ka-1848 abahlali bakakhomitjina babekwa endaweni yekosi. Ngemva kweminyaka esithandathu wasuswa lokha i-Basutoland inexsiwa ngaphasi kwe-Cape Colony uMoshoeshoe, ngokusaba kobana uzokuhlaselwa mabhuru, wabawa kobana iBritheyini imvikele. Ngonyaka ka-1868 kwamenzezelwa kobana i-Basutoland sele iphethwe yiBritheyini, begodu aBasotho bakaMoshoeshoe batjhuguluka baba ngebeBrithani. Ngonyaka ka-1870, ikosi yaBasotho ekhabe sele iluphele yabhubha, sele amukele kobana abantu bakhe bangaphasi kweBritheyini ngaphasi kweNdlovukazi. Ilifa lakhe elingapheliko kade liqakathekile ekububumbeni aBasotho abaseLesotho. Ngokutlama ilifanako, wenza bona aBasotho babe sitjhaba sinye esibumbeneko, wabanikeza namandla wokujamelana nezitha.


Nanyana ngesinye isikhathi aBasotho bakaMoshoeshoe gade bahlaselwa maZulu, Matabele Kanye namabhuru nama-Briton akhange khebahlulwe epini. Ngemva kokubhubha kwakhe, amadodana wakhe baragela phambili ukuqinisa isigodlo. Kuze kube namhlanje kusabusa bona, begodu ngibo bodwa iindlalifa zesigodlo sabaSotho, bazinkosi ezibusa iLesotho yoke nanye nendawo eziseduze kwayo i-Matatiele esesifundeni se-Eastern Cape. Ikosi yanamhlanje ikosi uLetsie III, wabekwa ngonyaka ka-1997.

Translated by Busisiwe Skhosana