Rixaka ra Vasotho eAfrika Dzonga

© Dr Peter Magubane

Matimu

Vatshami vosungula va tiko ra namuntlha ra Lesotho ku ehleketeleriwa leswaku akuri rixaka rama San, lavanga siya ndzhaka yikulu yaku pendiwa ka mabaku. Vanhu vosungula vaku vulavula ririmi ra Bantu akuri mintlawa yinharhu yava Nguni, va Phatla, va Polane, xikan’we nava Phuthi, lavanga tsemakanya tintshava ta Drakensberg kusuka evuxeni hi magandlati yanharhu kutani vafika vatshama eminkoveni e dzongeni vuhumadyambu bya nambu wa Mohokare, Caledon River. Kwalomuya kuheleni ka malembe yava 17th century, ku landzela tihosi tava Sotho, va Peli, va Phuthing, va Sia kukatsa nava Tlokoa vafikile endzhawini liya kusuka e nwalungu vupela dyambu. Endzhaku ka vona kufike mintlawa ya VaSotho, leyi katsaka va Koena, va Fokeng na vasTaung.

Eku sunguleni kava 19th century loko Shaka akurisa rixaka rayena ra maZulu, kuve na ganglati raku pfumala ntshamiseko leringa hlasela tiko leri rohola. VaSotho etintshaveni naswona evupela dyambu bya tona hilaha namuntlha hinge hile Lesotho, Basutoland hi minkarhi ya khale, akutani hile vuhuma dyambu hilaha namuntlha hinge hile Free State laha nakona aku khumbekile. Kulwa swihundzuke swa un’wana na un’wana, vuhosi byi hangalaka, masimu ya onhiwa, nyimpi yiti nyika matimba kutani vanhu lava avari hava ndlela yin’wana vahetelela vadya nyama ya vanhu van’wana.

Rifuwo ra Moshoeshoe

Moshoeshoe, hosi ya va Koena, u tirhise maendlelo ya vusocha xikan’we na ntokoto wa tipolotiki kuva a hlula valala vayena. U hlengelete nhlayo leyikulaka ya valandzeri, hinkwavo kusuka eka valala lava vanga hluriwa kukatsa nalava vatsutsumaka nyimpi, lava vanga hundzuka valandzeri votshembeka xikan’we nakuva swirho swa vuhosi lebyi kulaka laha kungahetelela kuhundzuke tiko ra Lesotho.

Moshoeshoe u swikotile ku tirhisa maendlelo yaku yisa vanhu vakwe eka tintshava letingana ripala letinga fikelelekiki laha vangata kota kuti sirhelela kona kutani vayimela nhlaselo lowutaka na mavuthu lawa yanga hlasela ndzhawu liya, valava vanhu kuva vutla. U sungule hiku tirhisa tintshava leti vuriwaka Butha Buthe kusuhi nalaha namuntlha kunga doroba leringana vito lerifanaka. Endzhaku ka nkarhi vateke ndzhawu yikulu ya tintshava, Thaba Bosiu, evuhuma dyambu bya Maseru.

Leyi ayiri ndzhawu yakwe leyi ayi fuma, u vumbile vuthu ra vavanuna rotiyela, laha anga hlula lava ava ringeta ku nghena eka ndzhawu yayena. Hi 1831 ari murhangeri loyi anga hluriwangiki wa rixaka leri rahakau vumbiwaka ra Vasotho eka ndzhawu leyi yinga kula kuya fika e vupela dyambu bya laha namuntlha kunga ndzelekano wa Lesotho. Va Rolong kuya evupela dyambu, Va Taung kuya hile dzongeni kutani Va Tlokoa vari evuhuma dyambu bya ndzhawu ya Moshoeshoe leyi ari na nhlohletelo eka yona.

Moshoeshoe ari munhu loyi ari na vutivi, murhangeri wa xivono loyi atekiwaka tani hi nhenha ya Afrika. Hikwalaho ka vutlhari, kunga heli mbilu xikan’we naku kota ku hlohletela, u endlile ndzhavuko lowufanana xikanwe na kutshembeka eka tipolotiki ta valandzeri vayena. U kotile ku amukela colonization hiku kota ku tolovela mahanyelo ya Vasotho xikan’we na maendlelo ya ndzhavuko arikarhi anga onheli munhu. Kusukela ekusunguleni kava 19th century vaxavisi, vahloti na vahlampfa vahundzile hile ka ndzhawu ya nhlohletelo ya Moshoeshoe hi nhlayo yale henhla. Uvone leswo, loko nhlayo yava koloni yiya yitlakuka, kungava na ntlimbo lowunga tlakukaka.

Avona swifanerile leswaku vanhu vayena vafanele vakuma dyondzo ya xilungu leswaku vata kota ku phikizana na misava leyintshwa, u rhumele van’wani va vana va yena va majaha exikolweni e Cape Town. U rhambile va Paris Evangelical Missionary Society kuva vasungula xitichi xa kereke e Basutoland, kutani Messrs Arbousset, Casalis na Gosselin vaya tshama e Morija, kusuhi nale Thaba Bosiu, hi June 1833. Loko nhlayo ya valungu yiya yitlakuka (Boers) vasungule ku endla mapurasi eka misava leyinga nona evupela dyambu bya Mohokare, ntshikelelo eka misava wunyanya kuya emahlweni. Mavandla yantshwa ya tipolotiki ya simekiwa kutani kusungula kuyivelana swifuwo exikarhi ka valungu (Boers) na Basotho.

Vun’winyi bya Rixaka

Moshoeshoe alava kupfuniwa kusuka eka 'great white queen of the English', Queen Victoria, laha a kombela nsirhelelo eka valungu 'Boers'. Leswi swivuye swipfumeleriwa hi lembe ra 1848, kutani British Resident Commissioner ayisiwa kuya tshama etikweni leri. Endzhaku ka ntsevu wa malembe uvuye atekiwa a tlhelela kaya loko Basutoland yi hoxiwa kuva xiphemu xa Cape Colony. Moshoeshoe, avilerisiwa hiku chaviseriwa hi mabunu 'Boer', nakambe aya kombela nsirhelelo wa Britain. Hi 1868 Basutoland yivuriwa ndzhawu ya Britain, kutani Basotho bahaMoshoeshoe, vanhu va King Moshoeshoe, vahundzuka malandza ya Britain. Hi 1870 hosi ya Vasotho leyi ayi khalabyile yivuye yi lova, yiri nantsako wa kutiva leswaku vanhu vayona avari emavokweni ya Queen'. Ndzhaka yayona akuri vuhosi bya yona lebyi abyi vumbe vanhu vava nyandza yinwe tani hi Vasotho va Lesotho. Hiku endliwa ka ndzhavuko lowu fanaka, unyikile Vasotho tiko ra vona, xikan’we na matimba kutiyimela loko vahlangana na valala.

Hambi leswi minkarhi yin’wana Vasotho va Moshoeshoe ava hlaseriwa hi maZulu, Matabele, Boer xikan’we nama Briton, avanga hluriwi enyimpini. Endzhaku ka rifu rayena, vana vayena va majaha vayile emahlweni vatiyisa yindlu ya vuhosi. Kufikela namuntlha lavanga tswariwa endzhaku kayena, vadyi vandzhaka ya vuhosi bya Vasotho, hitona tihosi eka tindzhawu totala tale Lesotho xikan’we na tindhzawu tale kusuhi tani hile Matatiele exifundzheni xa Eastern Cape. Vuhosi bya namuntlha bya King Letsie Ill loyi anga vekiwa hi lembe ra 1997.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni