Pinot Noir

© Glenneis Kriel

Inkcazelo

IPinot noir ngumdiliya we wayini omnyama. Kwaye yoyanyaniswa nenye yezona wayini zine aside nezingenayo zinexabiso eliphezulu kwihlabathi liphela. Igama layo licatshulwe kumagama esi French athetha I “payna” no “mnyama”, oku kubhekisele kukucukana nobutsolo bokumila kwendlela lemidiliya ima ngayo, nemile okwe payna kunye nombala omnyama walemidiliya.

Kukholeleka ukuba iPinot noir yenye yewona midiliya midala yosapho lwe Pinot. Kuqikeleleka ukuba zili 20 intlobo ze
Pinot noir ezikhoyo, kwelonani ke iPinot gris kunye ne Pinot blanc nazo zikwalinywa eMzantsi Afrika, nangona zingalinywa kakhulu.

Imvelaphi

IPinot noir iqale ukutyalwa e Burgundy France ukusukela kwi Centyuri yokuqala. Udumo lwayo lwandiswe ngamadoda ezenkolo (monks) zase Burgundy, nabathi kwiminyaka ye Middle ages batyala imidiliya kuyo yonke indawo abatyala kuyo izakhiwo zabo zonqulo. Kwisithuba seminyaka elikhulu, ba bantu bashicilela inkcukacha zemveliso yalemidiliya.

Beshicilelo indawo apho lemidiliya ichuma khona. Ngalendlela lamadoda abangowokuqala ukushicilela imbali ngesivuno kwaye aveza nombono wokuba imeko zangaphandle nangaphakathi zemozulu yengingqi ziyayichaphazela indlela uhlobo oluthile lomdiliya olukhula ngayo. Lemidiliya yecawe yagqithiselwa kwiintsapho zase Burgundy ngo 1789.

Nangona iludidi lomdiliya okunzima ukulikhulisa, imveliso yalomdiliya inwenwele nakwamanye amazwe ngokuhamba kweminyaka. Njengoko abadidiyeli be wayini abaninzi bezama ukufumana iziphumo ze wayini eziveliswa e Burgundy.IPinot noir isuke ekubeni ngumdiiya wa mashumi amathathu ukuya ekubeni ngowesixhenxe kuluhlu lwemidiliya etyalwa kakhulu phakathi ko 1990 ukuya ku 2010.

Amanye Amagama

Lomdiliya ukwabizwa ngokuba yi Spätburgunder e Jamani, eBrazil nase Canada; iPinot Nero okanye I Blauburgunder e Greece, Hungary nase Italy; okanye e Burgundac eMelika kunye nase Yugoslavia.

Imveliso eMzantsi Afrika

UProfessor Abraham Izak Perold wazisa isityalo seSwiss BK5 Pinot noir ngeminyaka yo 1920 kwaye iMuratie eStellenbosch yabayi fama yokuqala ukutyala lomdiliya ngomnyaka ka 1927. Lomdiliya wasokolisa ukukhula kwezinye ingingqi ezingaphandle kwe Stellenbosch, ngenxa yokuba kungxanyelwa ukuvelisa iwayini ngamanani aphezulu endaweni yokuvelisa iwayini ese mgangathweni.
Inkqubo yokwaba, eyaziswa ekupheleni kweminyaka yo 1950, nayo yathintela ukwanda kwemveliso.

Embindini weminyaka yo 1970, u Tima Hamilton Russel wenkampani I Hamilton Russel wines kwisithili se Hemel-en-Aarde Valley wadlala indima enkulu ekuvezeni ubuncwane bePinot Noir kweli lizwe, xa wathi wathatha isigqibo sokuvelisa lomdiliya nangona kwakukho lenkqubo kwaye isityalo esasifumaneka sasigcinelwe ukuvelisa I wayini ehlwahlwazayo hayi eyase tafileni.

Bencedisana nomenzi wakhe we wayini weloxesha, uPeter Finlayson, u Russel wabonisa ubungqina bokuba I Hemel-en-Aarde Valley sisithili esikulungeleyo ukuvelisa udidi lwe Pinot noir.

Izityalo ezitsha ze Dijon, nezifanele ukuvelisa I wayini zasetafileni ezikwizinga eliphezulu, zabakhona eMzantsi Afrika kwiminyaka yo 1990. Xa kanye kutshintshelwa kwimveliso ze wayini ezisemgangathweni , ezi zityalo zitsha zabangela iingingqi ezininzi zivelisa oludidi lomdiliya, kuquka I Elgin, Doring Bay kunye ne Franschoek. UProf Perold wadibanisa i Pinot noir kunye ne Cinsaut ukuvelisa udidi lokwenene lo Mzantsi Afrika, iPinotage.

Iingingqi Eveliswa kuzo eMzantsi Afrika

Ingingqi ephantsi kwemveliso ye Pinot noir eMzantsi Afrika ikhule ukusuka ku 0.8% ye ndawo ezikhulisa imidiliya ye wayini ukuya ku 1.2% ngo 2016. Nangona lomdiliya utyalwe kuzo zonke indawo ezivelisa iwayini, eyona ndawo kutyalwe kuyo kakhulu ikunxweme lo Mzantsi Koloni, ilandelwa yi Stellenbosch, Robertson kunye ne Paarl.

Lomdiliya ukhula kakhulu kwindawo ezipholileyo apho umhlaba utyebe kakhulu yitywa yolwandle.

Ukukhula

IPinot noir ayichumi kakhulu. Imveliso yayo ingaba phakathi kwe 8 t/ha ukuya kwi 1tt/ha. Kodwa isivuno kufuneka sigcinwe sisincinci ukuze kukhuliswe amathuba okuvelisa iwayini esemgangathweni.

Ukuvuthwa

Imidiliya ivuthwa phakathi ngexesha lokuvuna , ukuqala kwisiqingatha sokuqala sika Februwari.
Grapes ripen early midseason, from the first half of February.

Amagaqa Omdiliya

Amagaqa alomdiliya mancinci, amile okwe ovali. Imibala yayo ibaphakathi ko mfusa mnyama okanye abeluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka omnyama.

Amagqabi

Amagqabi aphakathi okanye abe makhulu ngoko mlinganiselo. Abe rawndi onke nje okanye abenekona ezingacacanga ezintathu.

Izonakalisi Nezifo

Lomdiliya awudibani nokutsha lilanga, iingculaza, izifo zokungunda nokubola. Ukuvuthwa kwamsinya kuwenza ubesisisulu sokutyiwa ziintaka.

Imisebenzi

IPinot noir eMzantsi Afrika yayikade isetyenziselwa ukuvelisa I wayini ehlwahlwazayo kunye ne wayini eyenziwe ngohlobo olunye lomdiliya. Isenokuxutywa nezinye iindidi zemidiliya. Kwezo ke iChardonnay kunye ne Pinot Meunier zezona ixutywa nazo kakhulu.

Incasa

Incasa ye Pinot noir ixhomekeka kwigalelo lwezinto ezahlukileyo, kuquka indawo ekhuliselwe kuyo, isimo sezulu, indlela imidiliya ibiphethwe ngayo kunye nendlela edidiyelwe ngayo ngethuba kusenziwa iwayini. Iwayini engavundiswanga ingabanencasa yeziqhamo ezibomvu ezifana namaqunube bomvu ne plam. Ze kuthi ngokuthi iya ivundiswa ijike ibenencasa yomhlaba, incasana yenkowane, izinongo kunye nomqwayito.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana