Pinot Noir

© Glenneis Kriel

Ihlathululo

I-Pinot noir mhlobo wamaderibe wewayini onzima ohlotjaniswa khulu namawayini wemvelo kanye nama-sparkling wines adure khulu eemhlabeni zombelele. Igama lawo lisuselwa emazwini wesi-French athi; “pine” kanye ne-“black”, eliqaliswe esakhiweni samaderibe aminyeneko akhamba ngokuhlanganiswa okutshwaya i-pine cone kanye nombala omnyama wamamomori.

I-Pinot noir kukholelwa bonyana ihlangana nomhlobo omdala obuyeleleke kanengi womndeni we-Pinot. Ilinganiselwa enanini elimasumi amabili wemihlobo etjhugulukako we-Pinot noir esesekhona, nekukukuthi i-Pinot gris kanye Pinot blanc ziyatjalwa eSewula Afrika, nanyana utjalwa ngenani eliphasi nje.

Indabuko/Imvelaphi

I-Pinot noir begade itjalwa e-Burgundy ye-France ukusuka ngesikhathi sesentjhuri yokuthoma. Idumo layo elinengi lingezelelwe yi-Cistercian monks ye-Burgundy, owathi ngesikhathi se-Middle Ages, kwatjalwa eendaweni zokutjala koke lapho kwakhiwe i-monasteries. Eentjalweni ezingaphezu kamakhulukhulu, imihlobo le yabuthelela amarekhodi wemikhiqizo agcweleko, afaka hlangana iindawo lapho iintjalo begade zithela khona khulu.

Imihlobo le yaba nomthelela wokobana umbiko ngokuvunwa kokuthoma emhlabeni begodu kwapha umbono wokobana umhlobo lo utshwaya ubuncani nobukhulu besimo sangaleso sikhathi, esithathwa njenge-“terroir”, etjaliweko. Isondo ebelilawula iimvande lasabalalisela emindenini e-Burgundy ngesikhathi se-Frence revolution yangomnyaka ka-1789.

Nanyana kumhlobo otjhijilako tle ukuze ukhuliseke, umkhiqizo ululekele eenarheni ezinye eminyakeni edlulileko njengombana abenzi bamawayini bebalinga ukufeza izinga elifanako eliphuma phambili lama wayini njengokuwahlobanisa namawayini we-Burgundy. I-Pinot noir ikhambe ukusuka ebujameni besumi nantathu ukuya kebesumi nekhomba beentjalo ezitjalwa khulu phakathi kweminyaka ka-1990 kanye no-2010.

Amanye Amagamawo

Umhlobo lo ubuye ubizwe nge-Spätburgunder e-Germany, Brazil and Canada; Pinot Nero nofana Blauburgunder e-Greece, Hungary kanye ne-Italy; nofana i-Burgundac e-United States kanye ne- Yugoslavia.

Umkhiqizo weSewula Afrika

UPhrofesa Abraham Izak Perold wangenisa enarheni i-Swiss BK5 Pinot noir ezikhamba ngobunengi ngeminyaka yabo-1920s kanye ne-Muratie e-Stellenbosch kwaba liplasi lokuthoma lokutjala umhlobo lo ngo-1927. Ngaleso isikhathi umhlobo lo watlhaga khulu ukuthi urage uyephambili kezinye iindawo ngaphandle kwe-Stellenbosch, ngebanga lokuqalana khulu nenani eliphezulu lomkhiqizo wewayini esikhundleni sezinga eliphambili lewayini.

Indlela ebizwa nge-quota system, yethula ngokukhamba kweminyaka yabo-1950s, kanye nokuvinjwa kokwandiswa kwemikhiqizo.

Phakathi kweminyaka yabo-1970s, u-Tim Hamilton Russel we-Hamilton Russel Wines ese-Hemel-en-Aarde Valley wadlala indima ekulu ekuvuleleni iqiniso ngamandla i-Pinot Noir enawo enarheni, lokha nakakhetha ukukhiqiza umhlobo lo ngokungasebenzisi indlela ye-quota system begodu lezo ebegade zikhona bekuhloswe ngazo ukutjala umhlobo we-sparkling begodu kungasi iwayini yetafula.

Ngokubambisana naloyo ebegade enza naye amawayini, u-Peter Finlayson, Russel waphasisa i-Hemel-en-Aarde Valley ukuthi kube ngiyo ekhiqiza i-Pinot noir. Umhlobo omutjha we-Dijon clones, uzwana khulu nomkhiqizo wamawayini wematafuleni, athome ukutholakala eSewula Afrika ngeminyaka yabo-1990s.

Ngokubambisana netjhuguluko emkhiqizweni wezinga elikhamba phambili lewayini, iimvino emitjha le irholele ekutheni iimphande ezinengi zikhiqize umhlobo we-Elgin, Doring Bay kanye ne-Franschoek.
UPhrofesa Perold wahlanganisa i-Pinot noir kanye ne-Cinsaut ukukhiqiza umhlobo weSewula Afrika wamambala, i-Pinotage.

Umkhiqizo Weemphande

Indawo engaphasi kwe-Pinot noir eSewula Afrika ikhule ngesilinganiso esima-0,8% wesibalo soke sendawo lapho kukhiqizwa khona iwayini notjani ngephesende eli-1,2% ngomnyaka ka-2016.

Njengombana umhlobo lo utjalwe emphandeni ezinengi, kuthi indawo ye-Cape South Afrika, bese ngikho okwenzeka bonyana i-Stellenbosch, Robertson and Paarl. Umhlobo lo ukhula bewuthele khulu eendaweni ezipholileko nalapho ihlabathi inote khona nge-lime.

Ukukhula Nokuthela

I-Pinot noir ikhula ngamandla aphakathi. Inani lomkhiqizwalo libalelwa ukusuka ku-8 t/ha to 14 t/ha, bekufuze imikhiqizayo yehliswe ukwenzela ukugcina ubujamo obungezelela bezinga lenambitho elikhamaba phambili.

Ukuvuthwa Kwawo

Amaderibe avuthwa phakathi esithomeni sonyaka, ukusuka ngenyanga kaMhlonja.

Amamomori

Amamomori mancani, akheke njenge qanda kanye nemilabala ephakathi kwe-violet okuvangwe ngohlaza sasibhakabhaka ukuyela kophephula kanye nonzima. Amakelwawo amatsikana begodu aqinile, kuthi ingaphakathi lithambe, libemnandi kanye nejuzi.

Amakari

Amakari wesilinganiso sobukhulu esiphakathi ukuyela ebukhulwini, arondo begodu aneencenye zesiphetho ezimpende ezintathu.

Iintjhabalalisi kanye Namalwelwe

Umhlobo lo uhlulwa khulu kutjhiswa lilanga, imihlobo yamalwelwe i-viruses, fungal diseases and rot. Ukuvuthwa kwawo ngaphambi kwesikhathi kwenza bonyana woniwe ziinyoni.

Umsebenzawo

ESewula Afrika i-Pinot noir isetjenziselwa khulu ukukhiqiza umhlobo ophuma phambili wewayini le-sparkling kanye ne-premium engavangwako. Ingabuya ivangwe neminye imihlobo, efaka hlangana i-Chardonnay kanye ne-Pinot Meunier ngezidume khulu ongakhetha.

Umnambitho

Umnambitho esele uphelele we-Pinot noir uvamise ukuya ngemihlobo eminengi, efaka hlangana indawo lapho umkhiqizo wenzakalela khona, ubuncani nobukhulu bobujamo bezulu, indlela imvino begade itlhogonyelwa ngayo kanye neendlela ekukhiqizweni.

Amawayini amancani anenambitho lomhlobo obomvu, efana nama-raspberries, plums, cranberries and cherries, ngokuthi iwayini nayikhulako kwakhela umhlobo onganabala, nekunencenye edliwako ebizwa nge-truffles, amakhowe, inyama ehloliweko kanye neenthako eziyingozile.

Translated by Johannes Nkosinathi