iVredefort Ngexesha le Iron Age

© David Fleminger

Iitheknoliji ezintsha

Ixesha le iron age laziswa eMzantsi Afrika nga Bantu abantsundu, nabasuka emntla. Aba baphambukeli beza kunye nee theknoloji ezintsha, ezifana nemisebenzi yeentsimbi, ezolimo, kunye nezilwanyana zasekhaya, kwaye kwaziwa ukuwa bazinza kumntla woMzantsi Afrika malunga neminyaka yoo 500AD. Oku kukuqala kwexesha le Early Iron Age kumazantsi elizwekazi lase Afrika.

Njengokuba benwenwela emazantsi, aBantu baqala ukwahlukana ngokwamaqela. Iqela ngalinye labanolwimi lwalo kunye nezithethe ezisekelwe kwiingcambu ka Ntu. Embindini welizwe, ababantu yabazintlanga zama Sotho-Tswana nabahlala kulemimandla namhlanje. Elunxwemeni, yabazizizwe zama Swati, amaZulu kunye namaXhosa.

iLate Iron Age

Kwathi kufika iminyaka yo 1300AD, ukwahlulwa kwentlalo kunye neempumelelo yethekhnologi yayisele iphucuke ngeyona ndlela kangangokuba ixesha eli landelayo laye labizwa nge
Late Iron Age. Ngeli xesha iintlanga zokuqala zama Sotho-Tswana zazithanda ukuhlala kwiindawo ezinkulu ezibiyelwe ngamadonga enziwe ngamatye, maxa wambi kuhlale amawaka-waka abantu kwiindawo nganye. Le phatheni yaqala ukubonwa kwiindawo ezifana ne Maphungubwe, enye yee World Heritage site zaseMzantsi Afrika. Kwalile ngeminyaka yoo 1800 zabe ezindawo zokuhlala sele zikhule yaba ziindawo eziphucukileyo ezinabantu abangaphaya kwama 15 000. Idolophu ebalulekileyo yase Kaditshwene, umzekelo, yayibaliswa ngokumangaliseka nange mbeko ngabafundisi bezakwalizwi abamhlophe neyayingabokuqala ukufika kulendawo.

Malunga ne 10 lezindlu zangexesha le iron-age, kunye namadonga azo enziwe ngamatye, esele ziboniwe kummandla we Dome ukuzothi gaa ngoku. Akukho nenye kuzo ebonakala inkulu kuyaphi, kodwa zonke zisagcineke kakuhle. Iqela leearchaeologists sele likhuthaze ukukhuselwa okongezelelweyo nokwembiwa izakhiwo ezishiyekileyo.

Ukuhlala kwase Vredefort

Indlela ekwakhiwe ngayo ekuhlaleni kwase Vredefort kubalisa ibali lengingqi efuye iinkomo, kwaye ilizwe lonke lalifuya ngeloxesha.Kukho oronta abathene qelele abajikeleze ubuhlanti beenkomo. Iinkomo yayiluphawu lokubonakalisa isikhundla ekuhlaleni, nalapho iinkomo ezininzi zazintama ubutyebi. Ngokomthetho, inkosi yayihlala entlakwe thango ze ooronta babalandeli bakhe zidweliswe ngokomgca wokubaluleka kwabaninizo. Ubuhlanti yayiyindawo yamadoda, kwaye babedibanela ebuhlanti okanye ecaleni kwabo ukuze basombulule iingxabano okanye bashukuxe imiba yemithetho yelali.

NgesiSotho, lendawo ibizwa nge ‘kgotla’ (indawo yokudibanela). Ngokwesithethe, amadoda ayengcwatyelwa ngaphakathi ebuhlanti.

Indawo yabafazi, kwelinye icala, yayilikhaya- Akukho nto intsha apho. Uronta ngamnya wayevamise ukubane bala elingaphambili ukuze kwamkwelwe/kubuliswe iindwendwe kunye nebala elisemva kwezindlu apho kulungiswa khona okuya ethunjini. Amabhinqa ayehlala ekulendawo yokuphekela emva kuka ronta.

Ukuhlala kwe Iron-Age

Ezinye iimpawu ezixhaphakileyo ezibonakalisa ukuhlala kwabantu eVredefort ngexesha le iron age, ziquka imingxunya egcina umbona neengqolowa, imingxunya yothuthu kunye neyenkunkuma kwakunye namagumbi okugcina impahla aphakanyisiweyo. Iingceba zezitya ezenziwe ngomdongwe, iingqayi, kunye namatye oku guba ayafumaneka kwiindawo ezininzi.

Ngelishwa, uphando ngentlalo yaBantu (archaeology) kuye nentlalo yabo ngethuba le iron-age, lwalungahoywanga ngethuba lezocalu-calulo eMzantsi Afrika. Phofu ke kwambali ebendakanya abantu abamnyama yayijongwa njengengabalulekanga okanye njenge nobungozi. Ngoko ke uninzi lwezindlu zase Vredefort aluzange luhlolwe ncam zizifundiswa zalomaxesha. Oku sele kutshintshe kakhulu kumashumi ambalwa eminyaka egqithileyo, kodwa ke uphando ngezentlalo ngethuba le iron-age kunye nezithethe luya lukhula kuMzantsi Afrika uphela.

Esinye isiganeko sakhe sabasikhulu sokombiwa kwingingqi yase Vredefort, senzeka kwisiza esibizwa nge Askoppies (Ash Hill/Induli yoThuthu), lendawo yathiywa ngeligama ngenxa yemfumba yothuthu eyafumaneka kulendawo. Esi siza sase Askoppies sinwenwela kwibala elizi khilomitha eziliqela, eziqulathe phakathi kwendawo zokuhlala eziphakathi kwesi 8 ne 15. Ingingqi nganye ezimeleyo yayibonakala ngezakhiwo ezilandelelanayo ezingamadonga enziwe ngamatye zaze zadityaniswa. Zazihlukaniswe ngalamadonga nangaphakathi kwaye kwakubonakala ngeminyango eyohlukeneyo ukuba ayisiyomizi minye. Lamadonga ‘omileyo’ ayesenziwa ngokupakisha kakuhle amatye afunyenwe kwindawo engqongileyo, kwaye udaka lwalungafane lusetyenziswe. Ukhumbule ke ukuba lamadonga awayonxalenye ka ronta, nowawusenziwa ngodongwe okanye udaka. Lamadonga ayesetyenziswa ukubiya phakathi kwezindlu.

Abantu Base Askoppies

Izinto ezafunyanwa eAskoppies zibonakalisa ukuba esi siza saqala ukuhlaliwa ukusukela kwiminyaka yoo 1680 ukuya ekuqaleni kweminyaka yoo 1800. Kwafunyanwa inani elikhulu lemigqomo yombona, nengqolowa, libekwe emva kwezindlu ezikumbindi wendawo enobuhlanti. Oku ke kuchaza ukuba babevuna ingqolowa nombona ngenkulu yona impumelelo. Kucingelwa ukuba umthombo yayisesona sityalo silinywa kakhulu.

Nangona iinkomo zazihlonitshwa njengendlela ethile yemali, zazikwatyiwa ngabantu base Askoppies, kwakunye nezinye izilwanyana ezifuyiweyo, ezifana neegusha, iibhokhwe kunye neenkukhu. Nangona kunjalo izilo zasendle ezifana nee zebra, amaqhude kunye nezinye iinyamakazi zazibalelwa kuma 50% wesidlo sabo. Ngoko ke ukuzingela yayiseyinto ebalulekileyo. Izilwanyane ezincinane (imivundla, amafudo kunye neempangele) kunye neentlanzi ezilotywe emlanjeni nazo zazityiwa. Ngokwezemveliso, isiza sase Askoppies siyafana nezinye iindawo zange xesha le iron-age kwilizwe lonke jikelele.

Kwafunyanwa izixhobo zamathambo kunye nezamatye. Kwafunyanwa kunye nee naliti nemitshezo, nto leyo intama ukuba aba bantu babesuka belungisa amafele ( awenkomo kunye nawama hlosi kunye nengwe). Kwaphindwa kwabhaqwa izinto zokuzihombisa, ezifana nebhengile zamathambo, iintsimbi zegilasi kunye namakhoba. Kwaye ezi zinto zazithandwa ngabo bafuna ukubonakalisa izikhundla zabo nokubaluleka kwabo kuntama ukuba abantu base Askoppies babebandakanyeka kunaniselwano olwalusenziwa phakathi kwabantu abasembindini nabo bakumanxweme asempuma. Kombiwa namacici ekopolo, kwakunye nentsalela zamagaba entsimbi kunye nemikhonto, nto leyo ibonisa ukuba aba bantu babeyazi imisebenzi yentsimbi nokwenza izinto ngayo.

iAskoppies ngoku ikumhlaba wabucala, kodwa ungakwazi ukungena ukungena ngebabonisi ngendawo bezotyelelo abagunyazisiweyo nabanemvume yomnini fama ukuze batyelele lendawo.