iVredefort Ngesikhathi Sensimbi

© David Fleminger

Ezobuchwepheshe Ezintsha

Ubudala bensimbi balethwe eningizimu ye-Afrika yiBantu, abafika bevela enyakatho. Laba bahambeli balethe ubuchwepheshe obusha, njengemisebenzi yensimbi, ezolimo kanye nezilwane ezifuywayo, futhi bayaziwa ukuthi bahlala enyakatho yeNingizimu Afrika cishe ngo-500AD. Lesi yisiqalo sesikhathi sensimu ezwekazini lethu.

Njengoba zisakazela phambili eningizimu, i-Bantu yaqala ukuhlukanisa ngamaqembu amaningana, ngayinye enezilimi zazo kanye namasiko asekelwe ezimpandeni ezivamile ze-'Ntu'. Ngaphakathi kwezwe laba bantu amaSotho-Tswana namuhla. Egwini, babeba izizwe zesiSwazi, Zulu nesiXhosa.

Ukuphela Kwesikhathi Sensimbi

Ngo-1300AD, inhlangano yenhlalakahle kanye nempumelelo yezobuchwepheshe yaBantu yayithuthukile kangangokuthi sibona inkathi elandelayo njengesikhathi sensimbi. Phakathi nalesi sikhathi, izizwe zakuqala zesiSotho-Tswana zazihlolisisa ukuhlala emadolobheni amakhulu, ngezinye izikhathi zihlanganisa izinkulungwane zabantu. Leli phethini laqala ukubonakala ezindaweni ezifana neMapungubwe, enye yezindawo zamagugu oMhlaba eNingizimu Afrika. Ngama-1800, ezinye zalezi zindawo zazikhulile zaba izindawo ezinenani nabantu ngaphezu ka-15 000. Idolobha elibalulekile laseKaditshwene, isibonelo, lachazwa ngenhlonipho yizithunywa zevangeli zakuqala zakulendawo.

Izindawo ezingaba yishumi ezaziyindawo zokuhlala ngesikhathii zensimbi, ezinezici zazo ezomile zamatshe, ziye zabonwa esifundeni seDome kuze kube manje. Akekho kubo obonakala sengathi bakhulu kakhulu, kodwa balondolozwe kahle futhi abavubukuli abaningana baye bashukumisela ukuvikeleka okwengeziwe nokucutshungulwa kwezakhiwo ezisele.

Izindawo zaseVredefort

Ukuhlelwa kwemikhawulo yaseVredefort kubonisa iphatheni yezinkomo eyabonakala kulo lonke izwe ngaleso sikhathi. Lena inhlangano yendawo yamahhala ezungeze izinkomo eziyinhloko, futhi imele ubukhosi obuhle lapho izinkomo ziwuphawu lobuncwane nodumo. Ngakho-ke, inhloko yayihlala ekhanda lesibaya futhi izindlu zezikhonzi zakhe zahlelwa ngokuhlehla kokubaluleka okuzungezile.

Isibayal sasiyisizinda samadoda, futhi babezohlangana ngaphakathi noma eduze nesbaya ukuze baxazulule izingxabano noma baxoxe ngenqubomgomo yomphakathi. NgesiSotho, le ndawo ibizwa ngokuthi 'kgotla' (indawo yokuhlangana). Ngokwesiko, amadoda angcwatshwa ndawonye nezinkomo.

Isizinda sabesifazane, ngakolunye uhlangothi, kwakuyikhaya - akukho zimangazi lapho. Indlu ngayinye ngokuvamile yayihlanganisa igceke langaphambili lokubingelela izivakashi kanye negceke elingemuva lokulungiselela ukudla. Amantombazane ayevame ukuba angcwatshwe kule ndawo ekhishini ngemuva kwendlu.

Izindawo Zokuhlala Ngesikhathi Sensimbi

Ezinye izici ezijwayelekile zesakhiwo se-Vredefort ngesikhathi sensimbi zokuhlala zihlanganisa izimbiza zokusanhlamvu, ulmlotha nezibi kanye nokukhuliswa kwemigodi. Izingcezu zobumba eziphukile, izitsha zokugcina kanye namatshe okugaya zitholakala kumasayithi amaningi.

Ngokudabukisayo, ukucwaningwa kwezinto zakudala zokuhlala ezindaweni zaBantu kwakungabhekwa njengento ebaluleke kakhulu phakathi nonyaka wobandlululo, njengoba nanoma imuphi umlando obandakanya abamnyama kubhekwa njengento engadingekile noma engaba yingozi. Ngakho-ke, izindawo eziningi zaseVredefort azizange zihlolwe yizifundiswa zosuku. Lesi simo sengqondo siye sashintsha kakhulu emashumini ambalwa edlule, kodwa-ke, futhi ucwaningi mayelana nezindawo zokuhlala ezindala kanye namasiko okwamanje kuqhubeka eNingizimu Afrika.

Omunye wemifucumfucu yakamuva endaweni yaseVredefort yenzeke endaweni ethiwa yiAskoppies(umqantso womlotha), okuthiwa ngenxa yamakhulu ezinqwaba zomlotha ezitholakala eduze nokuhlala. Isakhiwo se-Askoppies sihamba ngaphezu kwamakhilomitha amaningi, esinezigaba eziyisishiyagalombili kuya kushuminanhlanu ezihlukene zokuhlala. Ngayinye yalezi zindawo zokuhlala 'ihlelwe kahle ngochungechunge lwezindonga zamatshe, ezachaza umngcele wangaphandle wokuhlala futhi zahlukanisa izingxenye eziphilayo ngaphakathi. Izindonga 'ezomile' zakhiwe ngokugubha ngokucophelela amadwala nezinsika ezitholakala endaweni ezungezile, futhi udaka lwalungasetshenziswa ngokuvamile. Khumbula ukuthi lezi zindonga aziyona ingxenye yendlu, eyakhiwa ngodaka noma odakeni, kodwa kunjengomcingo wensimu ophakathi kwezindlu.

Abantu base-Askoppies

Ukuhlola konyaka nesikhathi salezinto ezitholakala e-Askoppies kubonisa ukuthi le ndawo yayikhiwe kusukela kuma-1680 kuya ekuqaleni kwawo-1800. Inqwaba yamabhodlela okusanhlamvu, atholakele kokubili ezindlini nasezindaweni eziphakathi nendawo, kubonisa ukuthi bebevuna okusanhlamvu ngempumelelo enkulu. Kuthiwa ummbila wawuyisitshalo esikhulu.

Nakuba izinkomo zazihlonishwa njengehlobo lwemali, zazidliwa abantu base-Askoppies, kanye nezinye izilwane ezifuywayo, njengezimvu, izimbuzi nezinkukhu. Noma kunjalo, izilwane zasendle, ezifana ne-steenbok, idube kanye nembabala, zenza cishe ukudla okungama-50%, ngakho ukuzingela kwakumsebenzi obalulekile. Abagxeki abancane (unogwaja, ofudu kanye nezinyoni) nezinhlanzi ezisuka emfuleni nazo zadliwa.

Ngokomkhakha, i-Askoppies iyavumelana nezinye izingosi eziningi ezisezingeni eliphezulu emhlabeni wonke. Kutholakale amathuluzi amathambo namatshe, kuhlanganise nezinaliti, okubonisa ukuthi abantu babelungiselela futhi baqhubise izicathulo (kokubili isikhumba esivela emaleni nasezintweni zezingwe kanye noshukela). Izinto zokuhlobisa, ezifana nezinyo lendlovu, izingilazi zezingilazi kanye namagobolondo e-cowrie, zafundwa, futhi lezi zimpawu ezibonakala zifiseleka kakhulu zikhomba ukuthi abantu base-Askoppies babecishe babambe iqhaza emkhakheni wezokuhweba omkhulu phakathi kwezwe langaphakathi nolwandle olusempumalanga.

Amacici ekhopha aphinde ahlanganiswe, kanye nezinsalela zezinsimbi nemikhonto, okubonisa ukuthi abantu babesebenza ngensimbi. I-Askoppies manje isendaweni yangasese kodwa ifinyeleleka kubasebenzisi abavunyelwe ukuvakasha abaye bathola imvume kumnikazi wepulazi ukuvakashela isayithi.

Translated by Nsika Khoza