Vredefort himinkarhi ya khale

© David Fleminger

Thekinoloji yintshwa

Iron age yitisiwe laha dzongeni wa Afrika hi Bantu, lavanga fika kusuka e n’walungwini. Vahlampfa lava vatile na thekinologi yintshwa, kufana na mintirho ya tinsimbhi, swa vurimi xikanwe na swiharhi swale kaya, naswona vativeka kuva vafike vatshama e n’walungwini wa Afrika Dzonga kwalomuya ka malembe yava 500AD. Laha hilanga kunga sungula xikhale kona eka tiko nkulu ra Afrika.

Loko varikarhi vaya va hangalaka kuya e dzongeni, rixaka xa Bantu risungule ku hambanyiseka kuya eka mintlawa yohambana, van’wana na van’wana vava ba ririmi kumbe mavulavulelo ya vona na ndzhavuko wa vona kuya hi timintsu tavona leti fanaka ta ‘Ntu’. Lexikarhi ka tiko hilaha kunga fika ku tshama lava namunthla hinge i tinxaka tava Sotho-Tswana. Kuya etibuweni ta lwandle hilaha kungana tinxaka ta ma-Swazi, Zulu xikan’we na ma-Xhosa.

Endzhaku ka Malembe ya Khale

Hi malembe yava 1300AD, kuhlengeletana na kufikelela ka thekinologi hi tinxaka ta Bantu se aswiri eka xiyimo xale henhla laha namuntlha hinge inkarhi lowuya wa khale. Himinkarhi leyi, tinxaka ta ma-Sotho-Tswana ava languteka varhandza ku tshama ngopfu eka tiyindlu ta maribye laha aku kumeka madzana dzana yotala. Maendlelo lawa ya sungule kuvonaka eka tindzhawu tale Mapungubwe, yin’wana ya tindzhawu ta Afrika Dzonga tati World Heritage sites. Hiva 1800s, tin’wana ta tindzhawu leti se ati hundzuke madoroba lawa ayari na vanhu votlula 15 000. Doroba ra nkoka rofana nale Kaditshwene, xikombiso, ari hlamuseriwa hiku hlamarisa na nhlonipho hi valungu lava ava tisa rito ra Xikwembu endzhawini liya.

Kuringana ka 10 ra tindzhawu ta xikhale, na tiyindlu ta vona ta khumbi ro endliwa hi maribye, tivoniwile kufikela sweswi eka ndzhawu ya Dome. Akuri hava na yin’we leyi ayi languteka yikurile, kambe ati hlayisiwile naswona ti archaeologists totala ati hlohletela leswaku kuva na nsirhelelo xikan’we naku ceriwa ka swivumbeko leswinga sala.

Vutshamo bya Vredefort

Leswi vutshamo byale Vredefort byinga tshamisa xiswona byi kandziyela kwalahaya ka matshamelo ya xivala xa tihomu leswi aswi vonaka tiko hinkwaro hinkarhi walowo. Leswi hileswi tiyindlu ta byasi tinga tshamisa xiswona tirhandzela xivala xa tihomu, leswi aswi komba rifumu emutini hikuva tihomu i rifuwo. Kahle kahle yindlu ya hosi ayiri e nhlokweni ya xivala kutani tilongoloxiwa kuya hileswi malandza ya fambisaka xiswona kuya hi nkoka wa wona. Xivala xa tihomu akuri kaya ra vavanuna, hikuva avata hlangana kona ku ololoxa swiphiqo kumbe ku burisana hi milawu ya muganga walowo. Kuya hi ririmi ra xi-Sotho, ndzhawu leyi yivuriwa ‘kgotla’ (ndzhawu ya nhlengeletano). Kuya hi ndzhavuko, vavanuna ava lahleriwa exivaleni xa tihomu.

Ndzhawu ya vamanana, hitlhelo lerin’wana akuri ekaya-kwalaho kuhava swihlamariso. Yindlu yinwana na yinwana yifanele kuva na rivala na makhumbi leswaku loko ku pfuxelaniwa na vuyeni swita endleka kona kasi lendzhaku kuta lulamiseriwa kona swakudya. Kuya hindzhavuko vaxisati ava lahleriwa eka ndzhawu leyi ku endleriwaka swakudya endzhaku ka yinglu.

Vatshami va Malembe ya khale

Swin’wana leswifanaka eka vutshamo bya ti xikhale tale Vredefort tikatsa dulu, goji ra thyaka na nkuma kukatsa na goji ro hlayisela eka rona swakudya leswi rimiweke. Switirhisiwa swofana na timbita letinga fayeka, makhuwani, tshuri na maribye yo sila hiwona switala kukumeka eka tindzhawu leti.

Xo biha, vulavisisi bya archaeology bya tindlu leti ta xikhale ta Bantu atinga tekeriwi enhlokweni himinkarhi ya xihlawuhlawu, tani hileswi matimu lawa ya khumbaka vantima aya tekiwa yangarhi na nkoka kumbe yari na nghozi. Leswi swiendle leswaku tiyindlu leti tale Vredefort tinga langutiwi hilava vanga dyondza hinkarhi walowo. Maendlelo lawa ya vuye ya cinca swinene eka malmbe nyana lawa yanga hundza, hambiswiritano, na vulavisisi eka vutshamo bya xikhale na ndzhavuko byi tinyike matimba etikweni ra Afrika Dzonga hinkwaro.

Kun’wani ka ku ceriwa loku kaha kuvaka kona eka masiku nyana eka ndzhawu ya Vredefort leyingava kona yivuriwa Askoppies (Ash Hill), leyi yinga thyiwa hikwalaho ka tindhundhuma ta nkuma letinga tala swinene eka ndzhawu leyi. Ndzhawu leyi ya Askoppies yindlandlamuke eka ndzhawu kuya fika eka tikilomitara to leha, laha kungana le xikarhi ka 8 na 15 wa tindzhawu totshama eka tona.

Yin’wana na yinwana ya tiyindlu leti tosaseka ayi biyeleriwile kahle hi makhumbi lawa aya kombisa mindzelekano xikan’we na leswaku munhu un’we u tshama kwihi. Makhumbi lawa aya endliwe hi maribye lawa yanga tlhandlekeriwa kahle lawa yakumekaka eka ndzhawu yoleyo naswona semende kumbe ridaka aswinga tirhisiwi. Tekelani enhlokweni leswaku makhumbi lawa ahi siphemu xa yindlu yotshama eka yona, leyi ayi endliwe hi vumba kumbe ridaka, kambe makhumbi lawa aya tirha tani hi nsirhelelo wa xirhapa exikarhi ka tiyindlu.

Vanhu vale Askoppies

Kuya hileswinga kumiwa e ndzhawini ya Askoppies swikombeta leswaku kusungule kutshama vanhu kusukela hi malembe yava 1680s kuya emasunguleni ya 1800s. Nhlayo yikulu ya magoji yohlayisela swakudya, lawa yanga kumeka endzhaku nale xikarhi ka xivala, yakombeta leswaku aku tshoveriwa koroni na nwahuva lowu awu hlayile. Sorghum i swinwani swa switshoveriwa leswi aswibyariwa eka ndzhawu liya hinkarhi wa kona. Hambi leswi tihomu ati tirhisiwa tani hi mali, nyama yatona ayi dyiwa hi vanhu vale Askoppies, xikan’we na swifuwo swin’wana swale kaya, kufana na tinyimpfu, timbuti na tihuku. Hambiswiritano, swiharhi swale nhoveni swofana na steenbok, mangwa nati mhala, aswi endla kwalomu ka 50% wa swakudya swavona, leswi aswi endla leswaku ku hlota swiva swankoka eka vanhu lava. Swihadyani leswintsongo swofana na mimpfundla, xibodze na timhangele xikan’we na tihlampfi kusuka emilambyeni aswi dyiwa ngopfu.

Kuya hi ndzhawu leyi, Askoppies yifana na tinwana tindzhawu ta khale swinene ta laha tikweni ra Afrika Dzonga. Marhambu na maribye swikumekile hi xitalo eka ndzhawu leyi, kukatsa na swihalu na tinereta leswikombaka leswaku vanhu ava tlhuvutsa na madzovo eka ndzhawu liya (dzovo ra homu, yingwe na swinwana swiharhi swale nhoveni). Swin’wana swiambalo swotani hi mabendlele, vuhlalu na swirhengele swa tihumba swikumekile eka ndzhawu liy, naswona leswi aswi kombeta xiyimo xokarhi eka vaaki na leswaku vanhu vale Askoppies avari endzelekanini loko swita eka kuxaviselana exikarhi ka vaaki nalava vanga ekusuhi na ribuwa kusuka evuhuma dyambu. Tisuruvele ta koporo tinwana ati celeriwile xikanwe na swikomu swa nsimbhi na matlharhi, leswikombaka leswaku vanhu lava ava tinyiketerile eka switirhisiwa swa tinsimbhi.

Ndzhawu ya Askoppies sweswi yile ka misava leyinga ya munhu kungari mfumo kambe ya fikeleleka loko kutirhisiwa vatirhi va swavupfhumba lavanga le nawini lava nga kuma mpfumelelo kusuka eka n’winyi wa purasi ku vhakela ndzhawu leyi.