Indlela Eya Ekuphileni Ye Robben Island

Inyathelo Lokuqala Eliya Empumelelweni

©Eric Miller
Ngomnyaka ka 1986, uninzi lweentsika zemithetho yezocalu-calulo yatshatyalaliswa, efana nomthetho wokutshata oxubeneyo (Mixed Marriages Act) kunye nemithetho eyayicatshukelwa ngakumbi yamapasi. Ekugqibeleni, ngomnyaka ka 1990, ekothukeni nakuvuyo lwabantu, imibutho ephikisayo efana ne ANC kunye ne PAC yayekwa ukunqunyanyiswa waze no Mandela wakhululwa.

Iminyaka ukusuka ngomnyaka ka 1990 ukuya kuma kunyulo lokuqala lokuzikhethela labayimbali. Kwabakho iinyanga zeengxoxo ezilwelwe nzima kunye nemigudu ye right-wing ukuphehluzelisa ilizwe. Ekugqibeleni ngaphezu kwazo zonke iimeko, ukunikezelwa kwamandla kwafezekiswa. Ivamise ukubizwa njengolona ‘Tshintsho loxolo’ kwihlabathi lonke, yabasisiqalo sexesha elitsha kwimbali yoMzantsi Afrika.

Ngomnyaka ka 1988, uMandela wafuduselwa kwindlu ekumhlaba wentilongo iVictor Verster Prison. Ngeli xesha, imimoya yotshintsho yayibhudlela kulo lonke ilizwekazi lase Afrika, kwaye uMandela waphinda wanikwa inkululeko yakhe. Walandula kwakhona waze wema kwelokuba abalingane bakhe baqale bakhululwe. Wayesazi ukuba umaqhingashe ongurhulumente usenokungabakhululi abanye isakuphuma inkokheli ye ANC. Eneneni bakhululwa nganye nganye, ezinye iinkokheli zepolitiki zakhululwa kwamsinya ngaphandle kokusokoliswa okanye silumkiso.

Kwaze ekugqibeleni, ngomhla we 2 Februwari 1990, ihlabathi labukela njengokuba uMadiba kunye noWinnie bahamba bebambene ngesandla ukuphuma kumasango eVictor Verster bephumela ekukhanyeni. Kulandela esi siganeko sibaluleke kangaka, amabanjwa ezepolitiki aseleyo eRobben Island ashiyeka emangalisekile kwaye echulumancile. Amarhe ajikeleza entilongweni no rhulumente, ngokungcola, wala ukunika ingxelo ecacileyo ngalomba. Kancinci kancinci bonke banikwa inkululeko yabo kwaye bakhululwa kungenziwanga micimbi nandumasi, kungekho nkxaso okanye kunyangwa ngokomphefumlo. Baphindiselwa eluntwini.

Ukukhululwa Kwamabanjwa Ezepolitiki

©Tracey Derrick
Indlela abakhululwa ngayo isakhunjulwa ngenzondo ethile. Abazange banikwe nkxaso mali ngexesha labo entilongweni, kwaye babenamathuba ambalwa engqesho. Uninzi lwabo babengamabanjwa ezepolitiki baziphosela etywaleni nakwiziyobisi.

Ngomnyaka ka 1991, onke amabanjwa ezepolitiki ayesele emkile eRobben Island.

Iinkonzo zaqhubeka njengezisele zokuvalela izaphuli mthetho de yangunyaka ka 1996, xa kwaye ekugqibeleni kwathathwa isigqibo sokuba ivalwe lendawo kuze kutshintshelwe amabanjwa aseleyo kwizisele ezisemhlabeni. Ukuba yayizakuthiwani ngoku lendawo yaphinda yaba ngumnqa.

Ukubaluleka Kwe Robben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Ukubaluleka kwesi siqithi luphawu lomzabalazo kwakunye nomfanekisos wokwahlula. Isigqibo sathathwa ukujika sonke esi siqithi sibeyi muziyamu ezakuthi ifundise abantu ngokukhohlakala kocalulo ngobuhlanga kunye namandla okunyamezelana.

Le muziyamu yavulwa ngokusesikweni ngomhla wo 1 Januwari 1997. Ngonyaka ka 1999, eliphulo langqinqa naluluntu lwehlabathi lonke, ngethuba esi siqith9 sashicilelwa kuluhlu lwe Nkcubeko Yehlabathi (World Heritage).

Namhlanje amakhulu abantu atyelela lendawo yayisakuba yintilongo mihla le ukuzibonela ngokwabo ibali elingummangaliso le Robben Island.

Ayilohambo luhlala lumyoli, kodwa kufuneka sonke siluthabathe ukuze izifundo zeminyaka engama 500 eyadlulayo ingaze ilibaleke. Ngokugcina inkumbul ye Robben Island, singakwazi, ukuthintela ukuba imbali ingaziphindi.

Translated by Zizipho Silwana