Umgwaqo Obheke Oguqukweni eRobben Island

Izinyathelo Zokuqala Ezibheke Enkululekweni

©Eric Miller
Ngo 1986, imithetho eminingi neyabe iyizinsika zobandululo yaseshulwa, njengaleyo yokunqabela abobuzwe obuhlukene ukushadana nalowo owabe wenyanyeka kakhulu wamapasi.

Ekugcineni, ngo 1990, ngokumangala futhi nenjabulo yabantu, izinhlangano ezazilwa nobandlululo njenge ANC ne PAC zakhululwa kanti noMandela wabe esephuma ejele.

Iminyaka esuka ku 1990 iya okhethweni lokuqala lwentando yeningi yabe iyinqophamlandu. Kwaba nezinyanga ezinde kuliwa nezingxoxo nezinhlaka ezivuna okungesiyo inkululeko zazima ukudicilela phansi izwe.

Ekugcineni kungazelele muntu amandla abe esedluliswa ngesihle. Okwabe kubizwa ngokuthi umzabalazo wokuthula emhlabeni, kwabe kuyisiqalo sokuntwela enzansi eNingizimu Afrika ngokomlandu.

Ngo 1988 ngesikhathi uMandela eyobekwa endlini endaweni yejele iVictor Verster. Kungalesosikhathi okwabe sekuvunguza umoya woguquko ezwenikazi lase Afrika noMandela wanikwa inkululeko yakhe. Wenqaba wabe esethi nozakwabo mabakhululwe kuqala, eqonda ukuthi kusenokwenzeka uhulumeni wesikhathi ungabakhiphi abanye uma umholi oqavile we ANC esekhululiwe. Nebala babe sebekhululwa ngamunye ngamunye, lezi ezinye iziboshwa zombusazwe zazikhululwa ngaphandle kokwazizwa. Ekugcineni, ngo mhlaka 2 February 1990, umhlaba wawubuka nkashana uMadiba ephuma ebanjwe ngesandla nguMama uWinnie emasangweni e Victor Verster ezongena ekukhanyeni.

Emva kwalelogidigidi, kwathi iziboshwa zombangazwe ezabe zisasele eRobben Island zasekudidekeni zinenjabulo futhi. Amahebezi agcwala ejele nakuhulumeni, ngonya, engafuni ukuchaza kuzokwenzekani ngalolodaba. Kancane kancane, nokho, bonke banikwa inkululeko baphuma ngaphandle kokwenziwa kwesasa, banganikwa kwelulekwa nokulekelelwa ukubuyela emphakathini.

Ukukhishwa Kweziboshwa Zombangazwe

©Tracey Derrick
Indela abakhishwa ngayo isabukwa ngonya nanamuhla. Abazange banxeshezelwe ngesikhathi sabo esamoshwa besejele, futhi benamathuba amancane omsebenzi. Abaningi beziboshwa zomzabalazo baphendukela ophuzweni nasezidakamizweni.

Ngo 1991, zonke iziboshwa zomzabalazo zabe seziphumile eRobben Island. Isakhiwo saqhubeka ukuba yijele lezombangazwe kwaze kwawu 1996, okwaphethwa ngokuba livalwe bese abathunjwa abebasasele kulo base beyiswa emajele asezweni ngaphandle kwesiqhingi. Ikusasa le Robben Island lalimfiliba futhi.

Ubumqoka beRobben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Ubumqoka besiqhingi kwabe kuluphawu lomzabalazo nentabakukhonjwa yokunqoba phezu kwezimo ezingenabulungiswa. Isinqumo sabe seithathwa ukuguqula ijele lonke libe yinqolobane yomlandu eyofunda abantu ngobubi bobandlululo lwebala namandla okubekezela. Inqolobane yavulwa ngokusemthethweni ngo mhlaka 1 kuMasingana ngo 1997. Lolosungulo lwahlonishwa wumhlaba ngesikhathi isiqhingi siqoshwa ohleni lwe World Heritage.

Namuhla, njalo ngesonto izinkulungwane zabantu zivakashela lendawo eyabe ilijele, ikuze zizizwele umuzwa wesimanga seRobben Island. Akuhlali njalo kuluhambo olumnandi lolu, nokho kuyilolu okumele nathi siluthathe ukuze lezifundo ezibuhlungu zeminyaka ewu 500 zingalibaleki. Ngokugcina inkumbulo yeRobben Island yebo singenza kube kanye ukuba umlando ungalokothi uziphinde ‘nkombose kababa’!

Translated by Sbonelo Ngema