Ndlela ya Robben Island yoya eku pfuxelelekeni

Magoza yosungula kuya eka ntshuxeko

©Eric Miller
Hi lembe ra 1986, yinwani ya milawu leyi ayiri tiphuphu ta xihlawuhlawu yivuye yi herisiwa, kufana na ya Mixed Marriages Act na lowu wunga vengiwa ngopfu wa Pass Laws.

Eku heteleleni, hi 1990, hindlela yohlamarisa na ntsako wa vanhu, mavandla yo kaneta yo tani hi ANC na PAC ya vuye ya nga ha yirisiwi naswona Mandela u chuchiwile e khotsweni.

Malembe kusukela hi 1990 kufikela eka nhlawulo wa xidimokirasi wa mani na mani wa 1994 yave matimu. Tkuve na tinhweti to hlaya taku burisana xikanwe naku ringeta hilaka kukulu eka ku tisa mpfilumpfilu etikweni.

Ekuheteleleni, hambi leswi aswi tsotsomba, ku nyikeriwa ka matimba hiku tinyiketela kuvuye ku fikeleriwa. Switala kuvuriwa kuhumelela lokukulu ko hola emisaveni, lawa akuri masungulo yantshwa ya matimu ya tiko ra Afrika Dzonga.

Hi lembe ra 1988, loko Mandela atava a rhurhiseriwe e ndlwini e jarateni rale khotsweni ra Victor Verster. Hinkarhi lowu, mimoya yaku cinca ayi hunga eka tiko hinkwaro naswona Mandela a nyikiwa ntshuxeko wayena.

Anga pfumelangi sweswo kambe u tiyisise leswaku vabohiwa kulorhi vafanele ku chuchiwa kusungula, hikuva aswitiva kahle leswaku loko a pfumelela kukuma ntshuxeko, mfumo lowu wunga ala ku chucha vabohiwa lavanwana loko yena tani hi nhloko ya vurhangeri bya ANC byi tshunxiwile.

Hindlela yoleyo, va chuchiwa hi un’we un’we, varhangeri vanwana va tipolotiki va chuchiwa hixihatla vanga switwisisi leswaku kungava ku humelele yini kumbe kutivisiwa hileswinga humelelaka.

Eku heteleleni, hiti 2 February 1990, misava yi hlalela loko Madiba na Winnie vafamba va khomanile hi mavoko vahuma hi tinyangwa ta khotso ra Victor Verster kufika eku vonakaleni.

Ku landzela ntirho lowu wohlawuleka, vabohiwa va tipolotiki lava ava sele e khotsweni ra Robben Island vasale vari eka xiyimo xo pfumala kutwisisa nanyanyuko lowukulu.

Maveriveri ya hangalakile na makhumbi ya khotso naswona mfumo hi ndlela ya tihanyi awu pfumelanga ku humesa xitatimende xohetiseka eka mhaka leyi. Hikantsongo ntsongo, hambi swiritano, hinkwavo vanyikiwile ntshuxeko laha vanga pfuleriwa va famba vanga nyikiwanga pfuneto wakuva va lulamisiwa emi ehleketweni kumbe nseketelo, loko vavuyela e vanhwini.

Ku chuchiwa ka vabohiwa va tipolotiki

©Tracey Derrick
Ndlela ya ma chuchiwelo yavona ayaha tisa ku kwata swinene eka vona. Ava ririsiwanga hinchumu eka nkarhi lowu vanga tshama hiwona e khotsweni, naswona akungari na ntshembo ngopfu leswaku vata kuma ntirho va tirha.

Votala va vona va sungule ku tirhisa swidzidziharisi na byala. Kufikela namuntlha, akuna nongonoko wokarhi lowu pfunetaka vanhu lava vuntshwa bya vona byinga helela e khotsweni ra nkarhi wa xihlawuhlawu laha lava akuri vona vava tshikelela vayaka emahlweni va hanya vutomi byo antswa, kasi valweli vantshuxeko vayaka emahlweni va hlupheka xikanwe naku pfumala.

Hi lembe ra 1991, vabohiwa va tipolotiki hinkwavo se ava chuchiwe hinkwavo kukuka e Robben Island.

Ndzhawu leyi yiye emahlweni yitirha tani hi khotso ra valwela ntshunxeko kufikela hi 1996, laha kunga tekiwa xiboho xaleswaku yipfariwa kasi lava ava sele e khotsweni leriya vayisiwe eka makhotso yanwana. Leswi aswi fanele ku endliwa hi Robben Island aswinga tiveki nakambe.

Nkoka wa Robben Island

©Roger de la Harpe
Nkoka wa khotso leri tani hi xikombiso xa kulweriwa ka ntshunxeko xikanwe nakuva xikombiso xaku hlula kupfumala ndzingano loku akuri kona se aswi vonaka.

Xiboho xivuye xitekiwa ku cinca ndzhawu liya hinkwayo kuva yiva museum lowungata dyondzisa vanhu hi manyala lawa xihlawuhlawu xingawa endla. Museum wupfuriwe ximfumo hiti 1 January 1997.

Hi lembe ra 1999, pfhumba leri ri amukeriwile hi misava hinkwayo loko xihlala lexi xitava xi hoxiwe eka nxanxameto wa World Heritage.

Namuntlha, magidigidi ya vanhu vavhakela ndzhawu leyi ayiri khotso vhiki na vhiki kuva vaya tivonela hi voxe ndzhawu leyi ya masingita ya Robben Island.

Aswitalanga leswaku kuva ku vhaka ka kahle, kambe i rendzo leri hifaneleke kuva hi riteka hinkwerhu leswaku tidyondzo leti ta malembe yotlula 500 a ti rivariwi. Hiku hlayisa switsundzuxo swa Robben Island hinga ringeta kumbe ku kota ku sivela leswaku matimu ya tlhela ya vuyelela nakambe.

Translated by Ike Ngobeni