Ukulima Izimbuzi eNingizimu Afrika - Uhlolojikelele

© Roger de la Harpe

INingizimu Afrika iyizwe elincane elikhiqiza imbuzi, eliphethe cishe u-3% wezimbuzi zase-Afrika futhi ngaphansi kwa-1% zezwe.
Izimbuzi zitholakala kulo lonke izwe ne-Eastern Cape, izifundazwe zaseLimpopo naseKwaZulu-Natali ziyizimboni ezinkulu, ezibalwa cishe ngamaphesenti angamashumi ayisikhombisa ezimbuzi eziphilayo.

Izimbuzi eNingizimu Afrika zifuyelwa inyama, ubisi, kanye nomthambo (mohair kanye ne-cashmere).

Imbuzi Zenyama, Ubisi Kanye Nomthambo

©SA Milch Goat Breeders Society
Imikhiqizo yezinkomo ezibaluleke kakhulu zokuhweba inyama yimibuzi yaseBoer, i-Savanna neKalahari Red engakwazi ukukhiqiza imali encane ye-cashmere. Inyama yembuzi ibizwa ngokuthi i-chevon (kusuka kumbuzi ekhulile) ne-cabrito lapho inyama ivela ezilwaneni ezincane. I-Chevon iphakathi kuka-50-60% ephansi kunamafutha kunenkomo kodwa inokuqukethwe okufanayo kwamaprotheni. I-Chevon nayo iphansi kunamafutha. ILesotho ingumngenisi ohola phambili we-chevon, okubalwa ngamaphesenti angama-74 e-South African export market of chevon ngo-2016.

Ukusetshenziswa kwamafayili njengomthombo owengeziwe wemali engenayo kungenza ukulima kwezimbuzi eNingizimu Afrika kunenzuzo kakhulu. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukusungulwa kwezimboni ezincane ze-agro eziguqula i-fibre zibe yindwangu zingenza umsebenzi ezindaweni zasemaphandleni.
Izifundo ezenziwe eNingizimu Afrika zikhombisa ukuthi izimbuzi zomdabu ezifana nembuzi yeBoer, zinezingubo ezimbili - izinwele eziqaphileyo, nezinhlobo zefiber. Kodwa ubuningi be-fiber cashmere ngokuvamile kwakungekho ezingeni elamukelekayo ezentengiselwano.

Umthamo wokukhiqiza i-cashmere kufanele ubonakale ekukhanyeni ukuthi, njengamanje, izimbuzi zibizwa ngokuyinhloko ngenxa yenyama kanye nobisi babo - uhlobo lwe-cashmere lwe-fiber phansi abhiqiza ukuthi alusebenziswanga nhlobo. Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, kubalulekile ukuthola ibhalansi phakathi kokukhiqiza inyama kanye nokukhiqiza i-fiber.

Izimbuzi ze-Angora (i-Capra hircus aegagrus) zikhiqiza i-mohair ngenkathi amaRussia aseGorno Altai enza umkhiqizo we-cashmere - i-fibre emihle kakhulu ye-18,5 μm (micrometer) ne-finer. Abalimi baseNingizimu Afrika bakhiqiza cishe u-60% wokukhiqizwa kwemhlaba ka-mohair, ikakhulukazi esifundeni saseKaroo se-Eastern Cape, kanti iningi le-mohair lihanjiswe echwebeni lasePort Elizabeth.

Imfuyo yokukhiqiza ubisi yizimbuzi zase-Saanen, Toggenburg naseBrithani ze-Alpine. Lezi zibizwa ngokuthi izimbuzi ezimbi. Ubisi lwezimbuzi buyabaluleka ngekhwalithi yayo. Ubisi lwezimbuzi lunokuqukethwe okuphansi kwe-lactose kunobisi lwezinkomo futhi aluqukethe i-A1 casein, iphrotheni engabangela ukuvuvukala kubasebenzisi abaningi.

Imbuzi zoMdabu eNingizimu Afrika

©Marinda Louw
'Izimbuzi zendabuko' zibhekisela ezinhlobonhlobo zezimbuzi zabakhiqizi abancane futhi zinikele ngokuyinhloko ekudingeni umndeni wenyama kanye nesilinganiso esincane sokubisi, kuye ngokuthandwa komphakathi. Izimbuzi zendabuko nazo zikhula nge-cashmere ebusika.

Imbuzi yendabuko itholakala ikakhulu esifundazweni saseMpumalanga Kapa. Le mbuzi ayibhekwa njengembuzi yenyama (ngenxa yesidumbu sayo encane) futhi ayithathwa njengembuzi yobisi ngoba iveza ubisi ngokwanele ezinganeni zayo.

Abalimi bezimbuzi zokuhweba ikakhulukazi banezimbuzi zeBoer kanye nezimbuzi ze-Angora kuyilapho abalimi abancinci ikakhulukazi bezimbuzi zendabuko ohlelweni lokulima. Izimbuzi zendabuko zimelela u-65% wezimbuzi eNingizimu Afrika, kodwa kusukela ekukhetheni ngokucophelela nokwehlukaniswa kwezimbuzi zendabuko, izimbuzi ezintathu eziyinhloko - imbuzi yaseBoer, iKalahari Red ne-Savanna zakhiwe.

Translated by Nsika Khoza