Ukufuywa Kweebhokhwe eMzantsi Afrika

© Roger de la Harpe
uMzantsi Afrika lilizwe elisakhasayo kwimveliso yeebhokwe, elenza nje u 3% weebhokwe zase Afrika kunye no 1% webhokwe zelizwe liphela. Iibhokhwe zifumaneka kulo lonke ilizwe ukusuka eMpuma Koloni, e-Limpopo kunye ne KwaZulu-Natal zinqenkqeza phambili ngemveliso, zisenza u 70% weebhokwe xaziphelele.

Iibhokhwe eMzantsi Afrika zifuyelwa inyama, ubisi kunye noboya (okanya ikhetshemiya).

Iibhokwe Zenyama, Ubisi kunye Noboya

©SA Milch Goat Breeders Society
Ezona bhokhwe zibalulekileyo zenyama kwezorhwebo zibhokhwe zamaBhulu, ezaseMathafeni nezasentlango ezibomvu ezikwaziyo nokuvelisa uboya obuncinci. Inyama yebhokhwe ibizwa i-Chevon (esuka kwibhokhwe endala) kunye ne Cabrito esuka kumatakane ebhokhwe. I-Chevon inezinga lefutha eliphantsi kangange 50-60%. Izinga lefutha lenyama yebhokhwe i-Chevon lingange 50%-60% ngaphantsi kwezinga lamafutha kwinyama yenkomo kodwa zombini zinesondlo esinye. I-Chevon inezinga eliphantsi lamafutha ngaphaya kwenkukhu. I Lesotho inkqenkqeza phambili ngokuthenga i-Chevon, isenza u 74% yorhwebo ntengiso ye Chevon yase Mzantsi Afrika ngo 2016.

Ukusetyenziswa koboya njenge sondlo esongezelelekileyo kungenza urhwebo lwebhokwe eMzantsi Afrika luphuhle kwingeniso yemali-kakhulu. Ukongezelela, ukusekwa kwamasebe wezolimo amancinci asebenza ngokuguqula i-fayibha ibe yingubo, avula amathuba womsebenzi ezilalini.

Izifundo ezenziwe eMzantsi Afrika zibonisa ukuba iibhokwe zemveli ezifana nebhokhwe yamabhulu, inezikhumba ezintlantlo-mbini, enye inoboya obuqathalala, enye inoboya obuyephu-yephu. Kodwa ngokommo, ubuninzi boboya obuyephu-yephu, bebungekho kwizinga lentengiso eyamkelekileyo.

Ubukhulu bemveliso yoboya obuyephu-yephu kumele kubonwe ngohlobo lokuba, okwangoku iibhokhwe zifuyelwa inyama kunye nobisi lwazo. Ubukhulu becala ibhokwe ifuyelwa inyama nobisi lwayo – lentlobo yekhetshemiya eyephu-yephu engasentyenziswayo. Ngenxa yesisizathu, kubalulekile ukufumana umlinganiselo phakathi kwenyama noboya.

Iibhokwe i-Angora (Capra hircus aegagrus) zivelisa uboya be-Mo-Hair njengokuba iibhokwe i-Gorno Altai zase-Russia zivelisa ikhetshemiya – uboya obusulungekileyo ngomlinganiselo ongange 18,5 µm nangaphezulu. Abafuyi base Mzantsi Afrika bavelisa kangange 60% yoboya i-mohair, isikakhulu kwingqiqi eyomileyo yase Mpuma Koloni, bube obuboya be-mo hair buthengiswa kwichweba laseBhayi.

Iibhokhwe ezifuyelwe uveliso lobisi zibizwa i-Saanen, Toggenburg kunye ne British Apline. Ezibhokwe zibizwa ii-milch. Udidi ngalunye lobisi lwebhokhwe luxatyiswa ngenxa yomgangato walo. Ubisi lwebhokhwe lona lunezinga elincinci lwamafutha kune lwenkomo, kuba yona iquka iprtheni ebizwa i-A1 casein, eyenza ukuba badumbe abasebenzisi bolubisi.

Iibhokhwe Zemveli zaseMzantsi Afrika

©Marinda Louw
‘Iibhokhwe zendalo’ zithetha ngeentlobo-ntlobo ezininzi zebhokhwe ezikhuliswa kwimveliso encinane kwaye ziyongeza kwimfuno zesondlo kwintsapho ngentsapho, ziphinde zikhuphe nobisi, into exhomekeke kwizidingo zomphakathi. Iibhokhwe zendalo zikhulisa ikhetshemiya ngexesha lasebusika.

Iibhokhwe zendalo zifumaneka kakhulu eMpuma Koloni. Lebhokhwe ayibonwa njenge bhokhwe yenyama (ngenxa yesidumbu sayo esincinci) okanye njenge bhokhwe yobisi kuba ivelisa ubisi olwanele amatakane wayo kuphela.

Abafuyi beebhokhwe zorhwebo bona bafuye iibhokhwe zamabhulu kunye neebhokhwe ze-Angora ekubeni abafuyi abancinane beebhokhwe bona banebhokhwe zendalo ezifuywe kwinkqubo yasekhaya. Iibhokhwe zemvelo zingange 65% kwiibhokhwe zase Mzantsi Afrika, ngenxa yokhetho olufanelekileyo kunye nozala kweebhokhwe zendalo ezingafanayiyo, kukho iibhokhwe ezintathu ezibizwa – iibhokhwe yamaBhulu, ibhokhwe ebomvu i-Kalahari kunye ne-Savanna, ezathi zavelisa.

Translated by Aviwe Damane