Izinyosi Zoju Nempova

© Eli Shany

Iyini Impova?

Impova yizinto ezikhiqizwa yi-anthers yezitshalo ezizala imbewu. Iqukethe i-pollen emihle yezinhlayiyana eziqukethe i-gametes yesilisa, isitshalo sezinambuzane zesitshalo. Ama-gametes abesilisa empova ahlangana namanye amaseli enqubo ebizwa ngokuthi ukukhulelwa.

Ngokubanzi, kunezinhlobo ezimbili zempova:
Impova ye-Entomophilous eqoqwe yizinambuzane ngesikhathi sempova.
Impova ye-Anemophilous ithathwa umoya kunokuba yizinambuzane futhi ihlotshaniswa nezifo.

Impova ngumthombo obalulekile wokudla wezinyosi, ukuhlinzeka ngamaprotheni ekudleni kwezinyosi ezindala, futhi kubalulekile ekuzuzeni isisindo emathunjini asezinyosi.

Imithombo Yempova

ENingizimu Afrika, izihlahla zomuthi, izihlahla zomdabu kanye nezihlahla, izitshalo zezolimo, ukhula kanye nezimbali zensimu zinikeza impova, amaprotheni kanye nectar 'carbohydrate' yezinyosi zezinyosi ukukhiqiza ukudla. Lezi zitshalo zikhulula i-nectar ne-pollen ngezikhathi ezahlukene.

Izinga lamaprotheni lihlukahluka emithonjeni ehlukahlukene yempova. I-pollen ephakeme kakhulu ikhishwa yizinhlobo ze-clover, izihlahla ze-almond kanye ne-pear, izinhlobo ze-populus, i-lupine ne-canola. I-pollen yekhwalithi encane iqoqwe kusuka ku-blueberries, i-sunflower, i-citrus kanye nezinhlobo zeTypha.

Izifundo ngo-2017 e-Saudi Arabia zanquma ukutholakala kwamaprotheni amancane 20,2%, isundu samathambo 19,8%, i-canola 18,9%, i-squash ehlobo 16,4%, no-sunflowers 15,2%.

ENingizimu Afrika, imithombo yamapoleni ingafaka i-echium enombala obomvu, amaprotheni angaphezu kwama-30%, ama-macadamia 16 - 22%, ummbila 14 - 15%, kanye nezihlahla zephayini 7 - 8%. Ukuqukethwe kwamaprotheni ezinhlobonhlobo ze-Eucalyptus kuyahluka kusuka ku-17% kuya ku-30%.

Emasimini aseSouth Africa, i-red cordum 'Corymbia ficifolia', i-gray ironbark, i-Eucalyptus paniculata, ibhokisi eliphuzi, i-Eucalyptus melliodora, kanye ne-ironbark emnyama iyasiza kakhulu ezinyosi.

Ukuqoqa Impova

I-pollen iqoqwa izinyosi ezisebenzayo futhi ithathwa esidlekeni emabhasikisini empova 'corbicula' emilenzeni yazo yangemuva. I-pollen iqoqwe emzimbeni womlilo wezinyosi. Njengoba zihamba, ukunyakaza kwamaphiko kudala ugesi omile kanye necala elibi. Lapho izinyosi zifika embali, impova iyagwedwa kusuka kuma-anthers futhi ibophe ezinwele eziqubuzelayo ezihlanganisa umzimba womlenze.

Ulimi lwezinyosi namagunya asetshenziselwa ukukhotha futhi ukuqoqa izinhlayiya ze-pollen ziyancipha imifino ye-pollen, ibangele ukuthi ibambe ndawonye. I-pollen ihlushwa ndawonye yimilenze yangemuva, ifakwe emabhola futhi igxilwe ku-corbicula.

Emuva esidlekeni, impova ifakwa esitokisini, kanye nezinye izithako.

Impova njengoMthombo Wokudla

Lapho impova ingenwa emlonyeni wezinyosi futhi ihlanganiswe emangqamuzaneni angenalutho, ixubene ne-nectar kanye ne-fluestive fluids ngaphambi kokuba ifakwe esitokisini ngephonsi leju. I-flues digestive iqukethe amabhaktheriya e-lactic acid egaxa kancane ishukela, aphule amaprotheni kuma-amino acids kalula futhi avimbele ukukhula kwesikhunta.

Le nhlanganisela, ebizwa ngokuthi 'isinkwa sezinyosi' idliwa izimpungushe zezinyosi kanye nezinyosi ezisanda kukhishwa. Izinyosi ezisencane ziyadingeka isinkwa sezinyosi esineziprotheni ukuze kuthuthukiswe izilonda ezidinga njengezinyosi ezikhulile ukuze zondle izimpungushe kanye nenkosikazi yezinyosi zezinyosi. Izinyosi ezindala zidla uju.

I-bee impova iyatholakala ukuze ithengwe ngabantu futhi iqoqiwe ngabalimi bezinyosi kusuka ezinyosi zezinyosi zesisebenzi, besebenzisa ugibe lwe-pollen. Ukusetshenziswa kwe-pollen kuyimpikiswano futhi ngempela, i-United States's Food and Drug Administration 'FDA' yonke imingcele yokuncintisana 'yomthombo omkhulu wemiprotheni', 'i-germ killer' kanye 'ne-allergies-reliever'. Izimpikiswano ngokumelene nokusetshenziswa kwe-bee impova ekusetshenzisweni komuntu zihlanganisa ukuthi lokhu kuzonciphisa ukutholakala kwamaprotheni wezinyosi, ngaphezu kwalokho, ukuthi kunezindlela ezishibhile zokwengeza ukudla komuntu.

Translated by Nsika Khoza